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12 mongrel dogs were divided into two groups and anesthetized with 100% O and isoflurane in different concentrations (1MAC and 2MAC). Blood pressures and heart rates were monitored and cardiac outputs were measured during all experiments. Cardiovascular effects of isoflurane in different concentrations were investigated. And then, intra-venous verapamil was injected slowly in bolus (0.2mg/kg) in each group and its cardiovascular effects were also investigated. The results were as follows: 1) Heart rate was decreased when the concentration of isoflurane was increased (p$lt;0.05) but there was no significant change after administration of verapamil. 2) Mean arterial pressure was decreased when the concentration of isoflurane was increased (p$lt;0. 01), and after verapamil was injected intravenously in each group (p$lt;0.01). 3) Cardiac index and stroke volume were decreased when the concentration of isoflurane was increased (p$lt;0.05). 4) Left ventricular stroke work index was decreased when the concentration of isofiurane was increased (p$lt;0.01) and it was also decreased significantly after administration of verapamil in high concentration of isoflurane (2 MAC) (p$lt; 0.01), and the degree which was decreased by the administra- tion of verapamil was much more in high concentration of isoflurane than that of low concentration (p$lt; 0.05). 5) There were no statistically significant changes in central venous pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary capillary pressure, vascular resistances, and right ventricular stroke work index.
Construction work, in its special quality, has a wide open risk according to the escalation. In case of the public construction, the national law of contract and the subcontracting law regulates the control of contract amount in order to curtail contractor's burden of this risk and enable original contractors and subletting contractors to be applied by the regulation of the law. In this sense, it has been necessary for the original contractors and the subletting contractors to be arbitrated by the appropriate amend of the related constitution in the wake of the possible occurrence of disadvantage due to quite a different interpretation for the control of contract amount between them caused by the various amount of production for the escalation with their argument in different views from their subletting amount because of the ambiguity of the subcontracting law clauses. This study aims at presentation of an appropriate alternative idea of controlling the contract amount according to escalation between the original contractors and the subletting contractors, analyzing the current articles related to escalation in the subcontracting law
서론: 현수 후두경하 수술은 환자에게 짧은 시간 동안 강한 자극을 주어서 술중의 활력징후에 많은 변동을 야기한다. 이를 둔화시기 위해 환자에게 clonidine을 전투약하고 이에 의한 혈압과 심박수의 변화 및 회복 시간을 clonidine을 전투약하지 않은 대조군과 비교하였다. 방법: 42명의 환자를 두 군으로 나누어 clonidine 전투약군(C군)에는 clonidine 150 ㎍을 전추약하고 대조군(N군)은 clonidine 전투약을 하지 않았다. Fentanyl 1 ㎍/㎏, propofol 2 ㎎/㎏, succinylcholine 1 ㎎/㎏으로 마취를 유도하고, propofol 6 ㎎/㎏/hr로 마취를 유지하면서 현수 후두경하의 후두 미세수술을 시행하였다. 기관내 삽관 전후, 술중, 술후의혈압과 심박수를 측정하였고 두 군간의 차이를 비교하였다. 또 술중에 투여된 esmolol의 양, 자발호흡의 회복 시간, 발관까지의 시간, 마취회복 후의 부작용 등을 조사하고 비교하였다. 결과: 마취유도, 기관내 삽관, 마취회복 등에서 활력징후의 변화 양상은 두 군간에 차이가 없었고, 마취회복 시간에서도 두 군간의 차이는 없었다. 추가로 투여된 esmolol의 양에서도 두 군간의 차이가 없었다. 마취회복 후의 부작용은 모든 환자에서 관찰되지 않았다. 결론: Propofol을 이용한 정맥마취에서 현수 후두경하 수술을 시행할 시 clonidine 150 ㎍ 전투약은 술중 활력징후의 변화와 마취회복에 영향을 미치지 못한다. Background; Anesthetic techniques for laryngeal microsurgery aims on modulation of sympathetic stimulation, good relaxation and rapid recovery from deep anesthesia. This study was designed to compare the effects of the clonidine premedication on the cardiovascular responses and the anesthetic recovery during suspension laryngoscopic microsurgery under propofol anesthesia. Methods: 42 patients scheduled for suspension laryngoscopic microsurgery were divided into two groups randomly. one group was premedicated with 150 ㎍ of oral clonidine 1 hour before surgery, and the other was not. All patients were administered fentanyl (1 ㎍/㎏), propofol (2 ㎎/㎏) and succinylcholine (1 ㎎/㎏), and then intubated. Propofol (6 ㎎/㎏/hr) was continuously infused for anesthetic maintenance. We compared systolic and diastolic arterial pressures and heart rates before anesthetic induction(baseline), after induction, 1, 3, 5 minutes after intubation, end of surgery, 5, 30, 60 minutes and 6 hours after surgery between two groups. We also checked the recovery time of self-respiration, the time to extubation. total amounts of esmolol administerd for additional control of vital signs and anesthetic complications including delayed recovery. Results: The blood pressures and heart rates during operation were not different between two groups, anesthetic recovery times and total amounts of esmolol were not different also. There was no anesthetic complication in all patients. Conclusions: From this results, it seems that the premedication with 150 ㎍ of oral clonidine had not additional benefits on the blood pressure and heart rate during suspension laryngoscopic microsurgery under propofol anesthesia.
As the types of North Korea's provocation are diverse and unexpectable in the costal area, ROK navy needs to develop countermeasures, such as costal defence guided rockets. Recently ROK navy developed the PKX-B which is equipped with the new 130 mm guided rocket. The most popular rockets are LOGIR for short range targets, 130 mm guided rocket for middle range targets and Spike-NLOS for long range targets. As various guided rockets are developed, it is required to develop a guided rocket analysis model and it's analysis methodology. In addition, these guided rockets can be installed on any platforms; ground vehicle, aircraft and warship. The paper proposes systematic methodology to estimate the operational effectiveness of costal defence guided rockets. A case study exploiting the ARENA simulation model is explained to demonstrate the implementation of the proposed methodology.
최근 개발된 수진벼의 중묘의 기계이앙재배시 실비생략에 따른 수량 및 미질에 영향에 관한 연구결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 1. 출수기의 건물중의 기관별 분포비율에 있어서는 분시방법간 비슷하여 기관 구조에서는 차이가 없었다 2. 분시발법별 수상에 있어 2차지경 및 영화퇴화율은 수비 30%를 준 기비 50%-분얼비 20%- 수비 30% 및 기비 40%-분얼비 30%-수비 30% 분시구에서 가장 낮았다. 3. 분시방법간에 출수기는 8월 16일로 동일하였고 간장 및 ㎡당 수수가 비슷하였으며 수당립수 및 등숙비율이 차이를 보이지 않아 쌀수량도 502~51 8㎏/10a('00) 및 563~601㎏/10a('01)로 비슷하였다. 4. 2년간 평균 현미의 완전미비율은 72.8~76.2%('00) 및 80.3~83.3%('01)로 차이가 없었고 백미의 정상립 비율은 76.3~79.6%로 비슷하였으며 아밀로즈 및 단백질함량은 각각 18.9~19.2% 및 7.1~7.2%로 비슷하였다. This experiment was conducted to evaluate a proper nitrogen spilling method in machine transplanting, especially in no fertilizing effect at grain filling stage of rice. The results obtained are as follow; Rice growth characters such as heading date, culm length and panicle number per ㎡ did not differ with nitrogen application methods either basal (50% )-tillering stage (30%)-panicle initiation stage (20%) or the basal (40%)- tillering stage (30%)-panicle initiation stage (30%) compared with the recommended nitrogen application method, basal (50%)-tillering stage (20%)-panicle initiation stage (20%)-heading stage (10%). Also, perfect kernel ratio and milled rice yield per 10a as well as rice quality were similar among nitrogen spliting treatments. The result indicates that the nitrogen fertilization at the ripening stage is not necessary.
The private sector is currently reviewing the feasibility of the project or deciding economic policies by analyzing the economic ripple effects. However, the arms acquisition project focuses on the need for the national defense weapons system by analyzing the costs and the effectiveness of the analysis and reviewing the necessity and feasibility of the project. In order to analyze the economic ripple effects, KB (the Bank of Korea) prepares and publishes an analysis table of industrial associations in a given unit. IAAR (the industrial association analysis report) is difficult to apply directly to the defense weapons system. Therefore, research on the economic ripple effects applicable to the defense arms procurement project was needed. In this study, we propose the generic methodology for estimating economical and technical ripple effects resulted in acquiring new weapon systems. Based on the analysis of inter-industrial relations, economical ripple effects are estimated with production inducing effects, value-induced effects, employment-induced effects and export-induced effects. Also, the technological ripple effects are estimated with technological intensity represented by investment cost in research and development. To show the validity of proposed methodology, a case study of acquiring new weapon systems such as GR (guided rocket), destroyer, and helicopter is accomplished. From the case study, it is concluded that these economical & technological ripple effects can be used as a reference to decision making in the course of acquiring major future defense weapons systems.