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첨가물질이 무처리 그리고 탈지옥수수와 녹두전분겔의 텍스쳐 특성에 미치는 영향을 알아 보기 위하여 실온에서 24시간과 72시간 저장하면서 관능적 기계적 특성을 조사하였다. 슈크로오스 지방산 에스테르, 셀룰로오스 유도체와 식용유를 전분량에 대해 0.5% 첨가한 전분겔의 종합적인 맛은 24시간 저장한 전분겔의 경우에 응집성, 휘어짐성에서 높은 정의 상관관계를 보였고 72시간 저장한 전분겔에서는 탄성, 응집성, 색깔, 부드러움성, 휘어짐성, 견고성, 투명도에서 정의상관관계를 보였다. 첨가물질의 유무에 관계없이 탈지에 의한 옥수수전분겔의 물성적 특성이 크게 증가되었으며 첨가물질의 물성적 특성에 대한 영향은 모든 전분겔에서 낮게 나타났다. 종합적인 맛은 첨가물질을 넣은 전분겔이 다소 낮았고 24시간 저장한 전분겔은 응집성에서 72시간 저장한 전분겔은 탄성에서 가장 높은 상관관계를 보였다. 기계적 검사에 의한 텍스쳐 특성치도 관능검사 결과와 비슷한 경향을 보여 첨가물질의 종류에 따른 유의적인 차이는 보이지 않았다. Effects of addition of various additives, sucrose fatty acid ester 1170 (SE), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and soy bean oil (SO) on textural characteristics for untreated and defatted com and mung bean starch gels stored at room temperature for 24 hrs and 72 hrs were studied. In sensory and instrumental characteristics of starch gels with additives (0.5% for starch basis), the acceptability was highly correlated with cohesiveness and bend property of starch gels stored 24 hrs and springiness, cohesiveness, color, smoothness, bend property, hardness and clarity of starch gels stored 72 hrs. Regardless of adding additives, textural characteristics of defatted corn starch gels showed somewhat higher values than that of com starch gels. The acceptability of starch gels with additives was somewhat lowered in all the cases, which showed highly correlated in cohesiveness for 24 hrs and springiness for 72 hrs. Instrumental characteristics were similar to those of sensory evaluation, which showed no significant difference with additives.
강남콩, 녹두, 옥수수전분을 탈지 및 지질첨가한 다음 8% 겔을 만들어 실온에서 3시간과 24시간 저장한 후 겔의 관능적, 기계적 특성변화를 알아보았다. 관능검사에서 전분겔의 종합적인 맛에 영향을 주는 요인들은 견고성, 응집성, 탄성, 휘어짐성으로 녹두전분겔이 가장 높은 값을 보여주었고 옥수수전분겔, 강남콩전분겔 순이었다. 전반적으로 탈지전분이 생전분보다 겔을 만들었을 때 유의적으로 높은 값을 보였고 탈지 및 지질첨가 옥수수전분겔의 특성치가 녹두전분결과 비슷하였다. 기계적 물성검사에서 시료전분겔의 특성을 잘 나타내 주는 특성치는 견고성으로 녹두전분겔이 가장 높았고 옥수수 전분겔, 강남콩전분겔 순이었으며 탈지전분이 모든 경우에 가장 높았다. 탈지 및 지질첨가 옥수수전분겔의 견고성과 탄성은 녹두전분겔과 비슷하였으며, 24시간 저장한 전분겔은 3시간 저장한 전분겔보다 견고성은 증가하였으나 다른 특성치는 비슷하였다. The sensory and instrumental characteristics of defatted and lipid-reintroduced kidney bean, mung bean and corn starch gels stored for 3 hrs and 24 hrs at room temperature were investigated. In sensory evaluation of starch gels, acceptability was highly correlated with hardness, bend property, cohesiveness and springiness. Mung bean starch gels showed sinigficantly highest value and followed by corn and kidney bean starch gels. Generally as for these factors, defatted starch gels were higher than untreated ones. The properties of defatted and lipid-reintroduced corn starch gels were similar to those of mung bean starch gels. In instrumental analysis, hardness was more important factor than any other ones. Hardness showed significantly higher value in the other of mung bean, corn and kidney bean starch gels, but it was highest in defatted starch gels among all treated gels. Hardness and springiness of defatted and lipid-reintroduced corn starch gels were similar to those of mung bean starch gels. Hardness of 24 hr stored starch gels increased more than that of 3 hr stored ones, but other textural factors did not change.
Thermal characteristics and granular morphology on enzyme-resistant starches (RS) formed during heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and retrogradation were investigated in high amylose corn starches, Hylon V and Hylon VII. With each treatment, both starches showed a similar trend in the increase of RS, but RS yield of Hylon VII is higher than that of Hylon V. Specially, RS was increased remarkably by HMT. It was more than doubled from 11.4% to 26.6% for Hylon V and from 15.9% to 32.8% for Hylon VII. A small increase of RS resulted from retrogradation. HMT on starch increased gelatinization temperature, decreased enthalpy. Retrograded starch exhibited small three endothermic transitions at 94℃, 110℃ and 140℃ in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogram due to the remained ungelatinized starch granules, dissociation of amylose-lipid complex and melting of recrystallized amylose, respectively. Enzyme-resistant starches isolated from native and heat-moisture treated starches showed a broad endothermic transition at higher temperature than native starch, while retrograded starch exhibited a very sharp peak at ∼150℃ due to the melting of amylose crystallites. Under microscopy, starch granules with HMT was not changed, but retrograded starches showed the aggregates of starch granules because amylose leached out during gelatinization. Iodine stained RS clearly showed the differences in enzyme hydrolysis on the native, heat-moisture treated and retrograded starches.
우리나라에서 처음 재배(栽培)를 시작한 elderberry anthocyanin의 화학구조(化學構造)를 동정하고 함량(含量)을 측정(測定)하였다. Elderberry열매에서 1% HCl MeOH로 추출(抽出)하여 얻은 색소농축액(色素濃縮液)을 Amberlite IRC-50 양(陽)이온교환수지관을 통과시켜 정제(精製)하고 paper chromatography로 개별색소(個別色素)를 분리(分離)하였다. 각(各) 개별색소(個別色素)에 대해 부분산가수분해(部分酸加水分解), acyl group, 결합당(結合糖), aglycone의 확인(確認), paper chromatography로 얻은 $R_f$값, spectral data 등을 기초로 구조를 확인(確認)하였다. 확인(確認)된 elderberry중(中)의 5가지 색소(色素)는 cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside with p-coumaric arid, cyanidin-3-xyloglucoside-5-glucoside, cyanidin-3-xyloglucoside-5-glucoside with p-coumaric acid이었다. 총 anthocyanin양은 elderberry 1g당 3.13mg이고 개별색소(個別色素)의 비(比)는 cyanidin-3-glucoside 4.3%, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside 28.3%, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside with p-coumaric arid 12.9%, cyanidin-3-xyloglucoside-5-glucoside 38.3%, cyanidin-3-xyloglucoside-5-glucoside with p-coumaric acid가 16.2%이었다. Studies have been carried out on the structure and the content of the anthocyanins in elderberries which were just recently transplanted in Korea. The anthocyanin pigments of elderberries were extracted with 1 % methanolic HCl and purified with Amberlite IRC-50 cation exchange column. The individual pigments were isolated by paper chromatography. Five pigments, identified by various chemical and physical methods were cyanidin-3-monoglucoside(4.3%), cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside(28.3%), cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside with p-coumaric arid(12.9%), cyanidin-3-xyloglucoside-5-glucoside(38.3%), cyanidin-3-xyloglucoside-5-glucoside with p-coumaric acid(16.2%). The content of total anthocyanin in elderberry was 3.13 mg/g fresh weight.
묵과 같은 텍스쳐 특성을 갖는 전분겔을 제조하고자 옥수수전분과 녹두전분을 탈지하여 전분겔을 제조 한 다음 실온에서 24시간과 72시간 저장하면서 관능 검사와 기계적 검사를 실시하였다. 관능검사에 의한 물성특성에서는 녹두전분겔은 탈지에 의해 관능적인 특성치에 큰 변화가 없었으나 탈지옥수수전분겔은 옥수수전분겔과 유의적인 차이를 보였으며 녹두전분겔과 비슷한 물성특성을 보였다. 기계적 검사에 의한 텍스쳐 특성에서는 탈지옥수수전분겔은 옥수수전분겔에 비하여 견고성이 매우 높았고 녹두전분겔과는 차이를 보이지 않았으며 응집성과 탄성에서는 녹두전분겔이 옥수수전분겔보다 높았다. 옥수수전분겔과 녹두전분겔은 모든 기계적 특성치에서 유의적 차이를 보였으나 견고성에서는 탈지옥수수전분겔과 녹두전분겔이 유의 차이를 보이지 않았다. The effects of defatting on sensory and instrumental characteristics of com and mung bean starch gels during storage were investigated. The untreated and defatted starch gels stored at room temperature for 24 hrs and 72 hrs. The sensory characteristics of defatted com starch gels were significantly different from untreated ones but the properties of defatted corn starch gels were similar to those of mung bean ones. Mung bean starch gels showed no changes in sensory characteristics by defatting. In the case of instrumental properties, there was highly significant in all characteristics between corn starch gels and mung bean starch gels, but firmness in defatted corn starch gel was similar as in mung bean starch gels.
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A starch granule is partially crystalline polymer, which is composed of linear polymer, amylose and branched polymer, amylopectin. When the starch granule gelatinizes by heating, its structure changes to amorphous, but gelatinized starch is gradually crystallized during storage which is called retrogradation. Retrogradation of starch is attributed to the crystallization of amylose and/or amylopectin. The retrograded starch shows B-crystalline type by x-ray diffractometry, regardless of the type of native starch. The degree of retrogra-dation(DR) of amylose is affected by its content, chain length, and lipid content. The DR of amylopectin is affected by its origin and content, outer chain length, lipid content, and cer-tain additives. Since the structure of starch granule and the assay method for the DR is not known clearly, it is hard to identify the role and mechanism of amylose and amylopectin on the retrogradation of starch. Because the retrogradation of starch is the most important aspect for the quality of starchy foods, the mechanism of retrogradation and the method of retarding retrogradation should be comprehend in the near future.
As corn starches with different amylose content were heated at different temperature (100℃, 121℃) with starch / water ratio (1 : 3.5, 1 : 9) and heating-cooling treatment was repeated up to 4 times, the yield of RS(resistant starch) from heated corn starches was investigated by the enzymatic-gravimetric method and the α-amylase treatment. Compared to α-amylase method, enzymatic-gravimetric method was more effective to hydrolyze the amorphous region of heated corn starch. With increasing the amylose content and the number of heating-cooling treatment, the yield of RS increased, regardless of isolation method. Heated corn starches farmed at 121℃ provided higher yield of RS than those formed at 100℃. Higher RS yield was also observed in the case of starch/water ratio (1 : 3.5) compared to the case of ratio (1. : 9).
Physicochemical properties, gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics of surfactant added sweet potato starches were investigated. Three different surfactants, SSL (sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate), Dimodan (mono/diglyceride) and SE1670 (sucrose fatty acid ester 1670) were used. Shapes and crystallinities of starch granules were not changed by the addition of surfactants. Total lipid contents increased and the amylose content decreased by the addition of surfactants and the order was as follows: SE1670$gt;SSL$gt;Dimodan. The swelling power and solubility at 80℃ decreased in the surfactant added starches. By amylograph, initial gelatinization temperature of untreated sweet potato starch was 72.5℃, and did not change by the addition of surfactants, but SE1670 or Dimodan added starch showed the peak viscosity. The peak temperature of gelatinization and enthalpy of untreated starch by DSC were 53.9℃ and 1.3㎈/g, respectively. The peak temperature increased by the addition of surfactants, while the enthalpy decreased. In gelatinization by alkali, the viscosity was lower in surfactant added starches than in untreated starch at concentration. The degree of retrogradation by α-amylase-iodine method was a lower in SSL and SE1670 added starches than untreated starch and the enthalpy by DSC also decreased in surfactant added and retrograded starches.