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A study on Day Time Nursing Activities of Staff Nurses was carried out during the period of November 1-6, 1972 at Seoul National University Hospital. For this study 60 samplers of nurses were taken up and results were obtained as follows: 1. 78.4% of the samplers were between 22-25 years of age, 96.7% unmarried, 63.3% on active service in this hospital for 6 months-2 years and 63.6% on active service in present nursing unit for less than 6 months. 2. Distribution (average) of patients and medical team members in nursing units showed 21.1 doctors, 5.8 nurses, 7.2 aid nurses to 64.4 patients. 3. Nursing activities were to be roughly classified into 1) Physical care activities; 3.3% of the total cases was for these activities, of which 63.7% was nursing for physical cleanliness and comfort, 22.7% for elimination, 5.4% for dietary care, 2.8% for position change and exercise, 2.3% for control of body temperature, 2.0% for rest and sleep, Y 1.0% for environmental arrangement. 2) Psycho-social aspects of care; this showed 2.1% of the total cases, of which 62.6% was nursing for health education, 37.4% for psycho-mental care and no care for recreation and diversion were taken. 3) Activities involving observing, reporting and implementing medical care; this service held 73.5% of all the activities, of which 58.9% was for implementing medical care, 24.2% for reporting, 16.9% for observation. 4) Management; 6.8% of the total activities was for this part, of which 42.5% was for management of drugs or equipments, 21.6% for ward house keeping, 19.1% for nursing on admission, 7.7% for nursing on discharge, i 7.5% for staff nurse education, 1.5% for student nurse education. 5) Others; nurses found themselves apart from nursing activities in doing something for their own affairs while in working hours, which designated 14.3% of the total activities. 6) Over-work; Study of over-work time in nursing activities in addition to ordinary duty indicated that the average over-work hours were 19.7 minutes, of which 77.9% was spent for activities involving observing, reporting and implementing medical care, 20.9% for management of drugs or equipments and most part of over-work hours were spent in surgical ward. 4. Analysis of nursing activites according to its influencing factors were as follows: 1) Analysis of nursing activities according to unit hours of performing their duty showed that while physical care activities and activities involving observing, reporting and implementing medical care were largely carried out in the morning, much of psycho-social aspects of care was done in the afternoon and management didn't make any difference of unit hours in proportion to its, required hours. 2) Nursing activities were largely analized by week-days as following physical care activities on monday, physical care activities and psycho-social aspects of care on wednesday, psycho-social aspects of care and management on friday, activities involving observing, reporting and implementing medical care on Saturday. 3) Analysis of the detailed cases of nursing activities according to the period of hospital services indicated that nurses employed themselves mostly in physical care activities when the period was less than 3 months, activities involving observing, reporting and implementing medical care when 3-6 months, psycho-social aspects of care when 1-2 years, activities involving observing, reporting and implenting medical care when 2-3 years, management when more than 3 years. 4) Analysis of activities according to the period of services in nursing unit indicated that nurses engaged themselves mostly in psycho-social aspects of care when the period was 1-4weeks, Activities involving observing, reporting and implementing medical care when 1-3 months, physical care activities and management when more than 1 year. 5) Analysis of activities by nursing unit largely indicated that physical care activies and activities involving observing, reporting and implementing medical care were carried out in surgical ward, psycho-social aspects of care in pediatric ward, management in gynecologic ward.
정의 1. 위상공간 X안에 있는 집합 A는 O⊂A⊂_c O를 만족하는 open set O가 존재할 때 Semi open(s.o 라고 적음)이라고 한다. (단, c는 x에서 closure operator를 표시한다). 정리 1. 위상공간 X의 부분집합 A가 s.o.되기 위한 필요충분조건은 A⊂IntA이다. (단, Int는 interior operator를 표시한다) 증명(충분조건) A⊂IntA라고 하면 O=IntA에 대하여 O⊂A⊂_c O가 된다. (필요조건) A를 s.o.라고 하면 적당한 open set O에 대하여 O⊂A⊂_c O이다. 그런데 O⊂IntA이고 따라서 c_O⊂_c IntA이다. 그러므로 A⊂_c O⊂_c IntA이다.
Nous voulions interroger les oeuvres romanesques de Balzac pour mesurer la conscience de la femme sur l'amour. Pour cela, nous avons consacre′ nos e′tudes sur G. Sand, Mme de Stae¨l, Saint-Simon, J.J. Rousseau et la vie intime de Balzac. Il a e′te′ toujours pre′occupe′ par les problemes qui se pose`nt a` la vie des enfants dans une famille de′sunie. Nourri par son amour profond pour Mme de Berny, il e′tait pre^t a` peindre en particulier les femmes de 30 ans, et des grandes dames. La plupart de femmes que nous trouvons dans ses oeuvres sont dans cette cage′gorie. Elles sont malheureuses, mal marie′es, abandonne′es par leurs maris ou amants, humilie′es. A propos de l'e′mancipation de la femme, l'iniquite′ des lois et des moeurs est trop forte pour qu'une femme se re′volte contre elle. Les femmes n'ont pas d'autre moyen que de se soumettre a` toutes les contraintes lie′es a` la condition feminine. Balzac propose aux femmes de se resigner, de s'oublier et de vivre pour leurs enfants. La resignation n'est pas la passivite′, mais une action, une espe′rance. Mme Mortsauf de Le lys dans la valle′e en est une image la plus pathe′tique.