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We demonstrate an acousto-optic mode converter based on a tapered optical fiber to efficiently generate orbital angular momentum states of light. In our scheme an acoustic wave is deployed to the waist of tapered optical fiber where two degenerate HE21 modes leading to +1 and −1 orbital angular momentum eigen-modes are resonantly excited. The excitation of TM01 and TE01 modes is suppressed by enlarging the intermodal index difference between near-degenerate spatial modes. Numerical calculation for optimization of the taper diameter is provided. The experimental characterization of generated states is performed by analyzing the output far-field pattern and the spatial interference fringes with a uniform reference beam.
Multiphase TiO2 nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning and subsequent calcination of as-spun nanofibers. The obtained TiO2 nanofibers were characterized by X-diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photocatalytic activity was assessed using methylene blue (MB) degradation in solar light irradiation. With increasing calcination temperature the diameter of the nanofibers decreased. The experimental results of MB degradation demonstrated that the solar light driven photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanofibers was enhanced up to 500 o C calcination temperature, and thereafter calcination decreased the photocatalytic activity owing to increase in the rutile phase. A mixed phase (76 : 24) comprised of anatase and rutile phase is more preferable for photocatalysis. The enhanced photocatalytic activity is owing to hindered charge recombination by means of electron transform from anatase phase to rutile phase at trapping states.
This paper presents the characteristics of non-fundamental multi-mode combustion instability and the effects of highharmonic components on the Rayleigh criterion. Phenomenological observations of multi-harmonic-mode dynamic pressure waves regarding the intensity of harmonic components and the source of wave distortion have been explained by introducing examples of second- and third-order harmonics at various amplitudes. The amplitude and order of the harmonic components distorted the wave shapes, including the peak and the amplitude, of the dynamic pressure and heat release, and consequently the temporal Rayleigh index and its integrals. A cause-and-effect analysis was used to identify the root causes of the phase delay and the amplification of the Rayleigh index. From this analysis, the skewness of the dynamic pressure turned out to be a major source in determining whether multi-mode instability is driving or damping, as well as in optimizing the combustor design, such as the mixing length and the combustor length, to avoid unstable regions. The results can be used to minimize errors in predicting combustion instability in cases of high multi-mode combustion instability. In the future, the amount of research and the number of applications will increase because new fuels, such as fast-burning syngases, are prone to generating multi-mode instabilities.
댐붕괴에 의해 발생하는 홍수파는 초기수심의 깊이에 따라서 하류부로 전달되는 수리학적 특성이 다르게 나타나며, 수치모의 시 흐름저항응력은 충격파의 전파 속도, 도달 거리 및 접근 수심 등에 영향을 미친다. 본 연구에서는 천수방정식을 SU/PG 기법으로 이산화한 모형을 개발하고 해석해를 이용하여 모형을 검증한 후, 초기수심 및 흐름저항응력에 따른 댐붕괴류의 전파특성을 분석하였다. 바닥마찰력을 적용한 경우 수심은 상대적으로 컸으나 충격파의 도달거리는 짧게 나타났다. Coulomb 응력을 적용한 경우 댐붕괴 후면에서의 유속이 상대적으로 작게 나타났으나, 충격파가 도달하는 영역에서는 바닥마찰력을 적용한 값과 흐름저항응력을 고려하지 않은 값 사이의 유속을 보였다. 또한 초기수심에 관계없이 흐름 저항응력을 고려하지 않은 경우의 불연속면에서의 Fr 수가 1.0에 가장 근사하였다. 초기수심이 얕은 경우 Coulomb 응력에 의한 모의결과가 난류응력을 적용한 경우에 비해 우수한 모의결과를 도출하였으나, 초기수심이 깊어지는 경우 흐름저항항의 영향력이 소멸되므로 반대의 양상이 나타났다. The flood wave generated due to dam break is affected by initial depth upstream since it is related with hydraulic characteristics propagating downstream, and flow resistance stress has influence on the celerity, travel distance, and approaching depth of shock wave in implementing numerical simulation. In this study, a shallow water flow model employing SU/PG scheme was developed and verified by analytic solutions; propagation characteristics of dam break according to flow resistance and initial depth were analyzed. When bottom frictional stress was applied, the flow depth was relatively higher while the travel distance of shock wave was shorter. In the case of Coulomb stress, the flow velocity behind the location of dam break became lower compared with other cases, and showed values between no stress and turbulent stress at the reach of shock wave. The value of Froude number obtained by no frictional stress at the discontinuous boundary was the closest to 1.0 regardless of initial depth. The adaption of Coulomb stress gave more appropriate results compared with turbulent stress at low initial depth. However, as the initial depth became increased, the dominance of flow resistance terms was weakened and the opposite result was observed.
This study deals with teacher learning with researchers-as-partners. We investigated the development of teachers' knowledge for teaching mathematical definitions in a co-learning inquiry community of teachers and researchers. These teachers wrote reflective journals about problems identified in their teaching practices, raised mathematical or didactic issues, and gathered to discuss the issues with other teachers and researchers in the community. Under a qualitative case study approach, we analyzed reflective journals of teachers and transcription of group discussions in terms of reflection types, developed knowledge, and characteristics of inquiry. Findings show that communal inquiry of teachers and researchers, mediating self- and joint-reflection, promoted development of knowledge for teaching mathematical definitions. We term the norms that represent inquiry stance of the members in this co-learning community as communal responsibilities of questioning and communal responsibilities of answering.
본 연구에서는 서울대학교 댐 하류 노천강당 유역과 공대폭포 유역에 지속시간 1시간 50년 빈도 강우에 관한 저수지 홍수추적을 실시하고 지하저류조가 설치되는 경우 다음의 사항에 초점을 맞추어 분석을 수행하였다 (1) 저류조의 저류량; (2) 우수유출량 및 첨두수위의 저감정도; (3) 지체시간 변화; (4) 신설 지하저류조의 유출입부 암거 설계. 노천강당 유역에 $25,000m^3$ 저류조가 설치되는 경우 총 유입량 대비 49.43 %의 저류효과가 발생하고 49.64 %의 첨두 유량 감소효과와 28분의 지체시간 증대효과를 얻을 수 있었으며, 첨두 수위는 $15,000m^3$ 저류조에 비해 35 cm 낮게 나타났다. 기존 저류시설과 신설 지하저류조의 공동 운영을 통해, 홍수 발생 시 댐 유역에서 초과되는 유출량을 탄력적으로 관리할 수 있는 것으로 판단된다. In this study, reservoir routings for 1 hour-50 year precipitation frequency were carried out at the Engineering Water Fall and the Amphitheater located at the downstream of Seoul National University Dam. Main analysis was focus on the following matters: (1) storage amount by the tank; (2) reduction of the outflow and the peak water surface elevation; (3) change of phase lag time; and (4) design of new boxes at the inlet and outlet of storage tank. As for the storage tank of $25,000m^3$ built in the Amphitheater area, the tank induced 49.43 % storage effect, 28 min. phase lag time, and reduced the peak outflow by 49.64 %. In addition, the peak water surface elevation was lowered by 35 cm compared with that of $15,000m^3$ storage tank. It is concluded that combined management of previous storage facility and new underground storage tank would control the excessive rainfall runoff efficiently.