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에너지원의 대부분을 수입하고 있는 우리나라는 현재 에너지원의 수입비용 상승에 따라 기업의 에너지비용 또한 급상승하고 있는 상황이다. 이러한 에너지 비용의 급상승은 기업의 생산원가상승의 주요 원인이 되며 이는 지금 기업 경쟁력의 약화를 초래하고 있다. 이러한 상황에서 에너지 절감을 통한 생산원가의 절감은 곧 기업의 성패와도 직결되어 있다고 해도 과언이 아니다. 그렇다면 기업 입장에서 에너지 절감을 위해 할 수 있는 최선의 방법은 무엇인가? 바로 ESCO를 활용하여 기술적, 경제적 부담없이 에너지절약시설을 설치하는 것이다.
Oxidative dehydrogenation of n-butene to 1,3-butadiene over Co9Fe3Bi1Mo12O51 catalyst was conducted in a continuous flow fixed-bed reactor. The effect of reaction conditions (steam/n-butene ratio, reaction temperature, and space velocity) on the catalytic performance of Co9Fe3Bi1Mo12O51 was investigated. Steam played an important role in decreasing contact time, suppressing total oxidation of n-butene, and removing coke during the reaction. Yield for 1,3-butadiene showed a volcano-shaped curve with respect to steam/n-butene ratio. The compensation between thermodynamic effect and kinetic effect led to a volcano-shaped curve of 1,3-butadiene yield with respect to reaction temperature. The Co9Fe3Bi1Mo12O51 catalyst showed the best catalytic performance at a certain value of space velocity. The optimum steam/n-butene ratio, reaction temperature, and gas hourly space velocity were found to be 15, 420 oC, and 675 h−1, respectively.
Palladium-exchanged heteropolyacid (Pd0.15CsxH2.7−xPW12O40) catalysts were prepared by an ion-exchange method with a variation of cesium content (x=2.0, 2.2, 2.5, and 2.7) for use in the production of middle distillate through hydrocracking of paraffin wax. Surface acidity of Pd0.15CsxH2.7−xPW12O40 catalysts determined by NH3-TPD experiments showed a volcano-shaped trend with respect to cesium content. Surface acidity of the catalysts played an important role in determining the catalytic performance in the hydrocracking of paraffin wax. Conversion of paraffin wax increased with increasing surface acidity of the catalyst, while yield for middle distillate showed a volcano-shaped curve with respect to surface acidity of the catalyst. Among the catalysts tested, Pd0.15Cs2.7PW12O40 catalyst with moderate surface acidity showed the best catalytic performance.
Direct chlorination of glycerol to dichloropropanol (DCP) was conducted in a liquid-phase batch rector using homogeneous H3PW12O40 heteropolyacid (HPA) catalyst. The effect of reaction conditions (reaction time, reaction pressure, reaction temperature, and catalyst amount) on the catalytic performance of H3PW12O40 in the direct preparation of DCP from glycerol was examined. The optimum reaction pressure and reaction temperature were found to be 10 bar and 130 oC, respectively. The reaction temperature was more crucial than the reaction pressure in improving the selectivity to DCP. Selectivity to DCP increased with increasing reaction time and with increasing catalyst amount. Acid sites of H3PW12O40 catalyst favorably devoted to the chlorination of glycerol. H3PW12O40 served as an efficient catalyst in the direct preparation of DCP from glycerol under the mild reaction conditions.
Titania-silica (TS(X), X=19, 26, 55, 70, and 79) supports with different titania content (X, wt%) were prepared by a precipitation method. NiMo/TS(X) catalysts prepared by an incipient wetness method were then applied to the production of middle distillate through hydrocracking of paraffin wax. Successful formation of NiMo/TS(X)(X=19, 26, 55, 70, and 79) catalysts was confirmed by ICP-AES and XRD measurements. NH3-TPD experiments were conducted to measure the acid property of NiMo/TS(X) (X=19, 26, 55, 70, and 79) catalysts. It was revealed that acidity of the catalyst played an important role in determining the catalytic performance in the hydrocracking of paraffin wax. Conversion of paraffin wax increased with increasing acidity of the catalyst, while yield for middle distillate showed a volcano-shaped curve with respect to acidity of the catalyst. Among the catalysts tested, NiMo/TS(26) retaining moderate acidity showed the highest yield for middle distillate.
Acidity of polyatom-substituted HnPW11M1O40 (M=V, Nb, Ta, and W) Keggin heteropolyacids (HPAs)was measured by NH3-TPD experiments. Acidity decreased in the order of H3PW11W1O40>H4PW11V1O40>H4PW11Nb1O40>H4PW11Ta1O40. Vapor-phase dehydration of cyclohexanol was conducted as a model reaction to correlate the acidity with the acid catalysis of HPA catalysts. Yield for cyclohexene (a product by acid catalysis) increased with increasing acidity of HnPW11M1O40 (M=V, Nb, Ta, and W) HPA catalysts. The acidity of HnPW11M1O40 (M=V, Nb, Ta, and W)HPA catalysts could be utilized as a probe of acid catalysis for dehydration of cyclohexanol.