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본 연구는 석탄광 주변에 건설되는 터널이 채굴공동의 붕락으로 인한 지반침하에 의한 영향을 조사할 목적으로 수행되었다. 채굴적이 표시된 도면이 존재하지 않기 때문에 탄광이 보유하고 있는 갱내도와 함께 지층구조, 탄층의 부존상황을 종합적으로 판단하여 그 위치와 규모를 추정하였다. 또한 정밀 지표지질조사와 지표 전기비저항탐사를 통하여 지층구조 및 암반상태를 파악하였다. 이러한 조사 자료를 바탕으로 터널단면에 따른 지반구조를 구성하였으며 이들 단면에 대한 2차원 수치해석을 실시하여 채굴공동이 터널에 미치는 영향을 분석하였다. This research has been conducted to investigate the influence of mined cavities on a tunnel to be constructed around a coal mine. The location and dimension of cavities were supposed by analysing synthetically geological structures and condition of coal beds as well as gangway map since there does not exist any map describing mined cavities. Detailed geological and geophygical survey have also been carried out for the purpose of understanding the geological structure and rock mass conditions. The two dimensional numerical analysis with FLAC has been performed on the geological sections reconstituted from the obtained information and the affects of mined cavities on the tunnel have been assessed.
Given the structure of Korean mountains, it is more appropriate to apply the relative elevation method than the absolute elevation method. However, so far there were not suitable quantitative methodologies to analyze relative elevation, these analytical concepts were difficult to be utilized in urban environmental planning. This study suggested three methods for analyzing relative elevation, and one method for setting the analytical scope of relative elevation by calculating terrain relief. The results showed that the procedure considering 500m radius of each point and standardizing to 30% of the 7th height ridge was the most effective method to extract the local topography. This methodology is the quantitative tool to be able to conserve local important hills and ridges, and apply to fields of urban environmental planning and ecological restoration, especially urban ecological network.
The loss of connectivity and fragmentation of forest landscapes are seriously hindering dispersal of many forest-dwelling species, which may be critical for their viability and conservation by decreasing habitat area and increasing distance among habitats. For understanding their environmental impacts, numerous spatial models exist to measure landscape connectivity. However, general relationships between functional connectivity and landscape structure are lacking, there is a need to develop landscape metrics that more accurately measure landscape connectivity in whole landscape and individual patches. We reviewed functional and structural definition of landscape connectivity, explained their mathematical connotations, and applied representative 13 indices in 3 districts of Seoul having fragmented forest patches with tits, the threshold distance was applied 500m by considering the dispersal of tits. Results of correlation and principal component analysis showed that connectivity indices could be divided by measurement methods whether they contain the area attribute with distance or not. Betweenness centrality (BC), a representative index measuring distance and distribution among patches, appreciated highly stepping stone forest patches, and difference of probability of connectivity (dPC), an index measuring including area information, estimated integrated connectivity of patches, Therefore, for evaluating landscape connectivity, it is need to consider not only general information of a region and species` characteristics but also various measuring methods of landscape connectivity.
야생동식물 서식지 보전 연구는 통합적인 생물다양성 관리 전략으로서 주목받고 있다. 국내 종조사자료 및 환경공간정보 여건을 고려할 때 종출현정보에 최적화된 것으로 알려져 있는 GARP 모형과 Maxent 모형이 서식지 분석에 가장 적합한 것으로 판단된다. 국내 적용가능성을 확인하기 위해 충청도 삽교천 일원을 대상으로 고라니( Hydropotes inermis argyropus)에 대한 기계학습식 모형을 적용하였다. 종출현지점은 3차 전국자연환경조사, 환경변수는 문헌조사를 통해 10개를 도출하였다. 분석 결과 Maxent 모형과 GARP 모형은 각각 전체 면적의 16.3%, 27.1%를 고라니 서식지로 예측하였다. 종분포모형 정확도(훈련/검증)는 Maxent 모형(0.85/0.69)이 GARP 모형(0.65/0.61)보다 높게 분석되고 Spearman 순위 상관계수 역시 Maxent 모형(r=0.71, p<0.01)이 GARP 모형(r=0.55, p<0.05)보다 높게 분석되었다. 이는 대상지의 특성과 대상종에 따라 달라질 수 있으므로 상황에 따라 적절한 모형을 적용하는 것이 바람직할 것으로 판단된다. The field of wildlife habitat conservation research has attracted attention as integrated biodiversity management strategies. Considering the status of the species surveying data and the environmental variables in Korea, the GARP and Maxent models optimized for presence-only data could be one of the most suitable models in habitat modeling. For make sure applicability in the domestic environment we applied the machine learning species distribution model for analyzing habitats of the Korea water deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus) in the Sapgyocheon watershed, Chungcheong province. We used the 3rd National Natural Environment Survey data and 10 environment variables by literature review for the modelling. Analysis results showed that habitats for the Korea water deer were predicted 16.3% (Maxent) and 27.1% (GARP), respectively. In terms of accuracy (training/test) the Maxent (0.85/0.69) was higher than the GARP (0.65/0.61), and the Spearman`s rank correlation coefficient result of the Maxent(r=0.71, p<0.01) was higher than the result of GARP(r=0.55, p<0.05). However results could be depended on sites and target species, therefore selection of the appropriate model considering on the situation will be important to analyzing habitats.
The purpose of this study is to work out strategy for utilization of Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map (ECVAM) using the user survey. It surveyed system users of ECVAM about its recognition and satisfaction. The results of the survey, the ECVAM became more popular and were highly satisfied with updated data. Especially, the study found a relationship between the satisfaction of ECVAM and accuracy, utilization, and convenience of the system. However, the satisfaction has a difference between user groups, a government official and a agent for EIA including researchers. The satisfaction of the agent group was affected by the convenience, the accuracy, and the utilization in order. In the other hand, the satisfaction of the government official group was affected by the utilization, the convenience, the accuracy, and recognition in order. Therefore, we need to adopt different strategies for educations of ECVAM and publicity activities depending on user groups. To increase the satisfaction of ECVAM, we should research not only to attain pinpoint accuracy, but also to suggest the guideline to utilize the map for a government official.
The Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map (ECVAM) is a five grade assessment map created with nationally integrated environmental information and environmental values. The map is made through the evaluation of 65 items, including greenbelt area and naturalness. Naturalness means original state of nature, and it is one of the most important evaluation items for conserving nature, The criteria of naturalness includes the Degree of Green Naturality (DGN) made by MOE, Using the data which has been not updated is a problem of accuracy for ECVAM. Therefore, this study would like to improve the criteria of naturalness. To improve the criteria, the study examined the effectiveness of DGN using field survey. The results of analysis the naturalness without DGN, some area changed grade of naturalness have been already damaged or cleared for agriculture and industrial purposes. The grade of naturalness should be included the concept of vegetation transition like DGN. The study suggested a improved method using vegetation type (natural and planted forest), forest age, and the grade of vegetation conservation. The method was reviewed by experts and field survey. After applying the method in South Korea, the grade of naturalness were distributed evenly like GradeⅠ is 38.87%, GradeⅡ is 37.62%, GradeⅢ is 23.51%, respectively. From the results of field survey, over 4 grade of forest age in natural forest showed similar pattern of structure and composition in original forests. Therefore, the improved criteria explained the naturalness better than existing criteria, and the accuracy of ECVAM has been improved more.
In spite of the ecological value of the DMZ, there have not been established guidelines for sustainable conservation and use on the DMZ and adjacent area. In this study we suggested a method about zoning the conservation and utilization area considering environmental data and the characteristic of the DMZ region, and we make the guideline for conservation of the DMZ region based on the zone. Using 10 legal protection areas, the Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map (ECVAM) and the boundaries of the DMZ region, we evaluated this region into conservation areas, management areas, and utilization areas. The results showed that as much as 91.8% of the DMZ region was evaluated as conservation areas, 6.9% as management areas, and 1.3% as utilization areas. After consultation with experts we suggested management principles, the direction, and the guideline based on the planning process considering the evaluation map. The study suggests principles and guidelines for management, and the guidelines could be a effective tool for the sustainable conservation and management strategy of DMZ region.