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Throughout the history of foreign language education, the role of grammar has changed depending on the needs and priority of dominant methods and approaches; however, “how to teach grammar” has always been and is still very critical and controversial question in language education. This article first presents various perspectives on the pedagogical value of grammar, including communicative language teaching. Next, it suggests the latest perspectives on the role of grammar in teaching Spanish as a foreign language based on the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (2002) and its action-oriented approach― a theoretical framework for teaching and learning foreign languages. Finally, this study examines how the two contemporary Spanish textbooks cover grammar: Nuevo ven 1 (2003) and Agencia ELE 1 (2008). In evaluating the two textbooks, the article first presents the comparative analysis on the general organization and then conducts the comparison and contrast between the approaches of grammar and how much the grammar has been conducive to develop and enhance communicative activities. Based on this study, this article will focus on the differences in the role and methods of teaching grammar in communicative approach and action-oriented approach.
Mediation, one of the four modes of communication proposed by the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR), has mainly been understood as interpretation or translation. As such, it has not been fully addressed in theoretical research or in practical applications in language education. However, in the CEFR Companion Volume, published in 2018, which takes an action-oriented approach, mediation was highlighted as a core language activity in the classroom. Following this framework, this paper intends to bridge the gap between mediation activity theory and practice. First, based on the theory of mediation presented in CEFR and its companion volume, we understood mediation as a central language activity based on an action-oriented approach. Next, we analyzed national curricula of Spain and Korea that served as a reference standard for implementing pedagogical theory into practice. The aim was to allow the objectives, methods, and evaluation criteria of mediation activities to be analyzed through mediation-related content in Spanish and Korean curricula. Finally, 21 Spanish learners at Korean universities participated in a writing task that required a mediation activity. An analysis of the task results showed that the pedagogical effects included helping the students develop successful communication skills beyond the understanding of linguistic structure.
The purpose of this study is to examine whether the effect of a teacher’s corrective feedback for error correction in Spanish learners’ writing tasks is more effective when the learners also have the opportunity to perform self-correction activities for the task. To this end, we designed two feedback experiments and examined which type of feedback is more effective for the learners in a university Spanish writing class. In the first experiment, the teacher provided direct feedback on the participants’ writing tasks and the participants rewrote the assignment at the midterm exam; in the second experiment, the teacher provided indirect feedback with underlines on the learners’ writing tasks, the learners performed self-correction activities, and, finally, the teacher provided direct feedback on the self-corrected writing tasks. Also, the participants rewrote the assignment at the final exam. In addition, the participants completed pre-experimental questionnaires about their needs for teacher feedback and post-experimental questionnaires evaluating the two types of feedback experiments they experienced and the effectiveness of the self-correction activities. The results of these two experiments revealed that participant learners considered the latter type of experiment that included self-correction more effective because it offered them the opportunity to determine the cause of their errors themselves, based on the teacher’s indirect feedback.