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          반계 유형원의 국가재정 개혁구상과 녹봉제 실시론

          송양섭 한국실학학회 2018 한국실학연구 Vol.0 No.36

          Yu Hyŏngwŏn sought to apply the systemic fundamentals of Taedongbŏp, which was conducted in increasing numbers of Provinces at his time, to the whole state finance. To manage the state finance, Yu drew up the expenditure secured from Kongjŏn (公田 ; public lands) into the central finance and the local finance, under the principle of Yangibwich'ul (量入爲出 ; Measuring the Income to Make the Expense). In the central finance, other than reducing budget for the Royal Family and setting proper budget to procure the supplies for offices in various levels, a variety of personnel expenditure articulated as ‘Salaries’ approached almost 70 percent, and in the local finance, which was expanded in a large scale, the personnel expenditure accounted for more than half. With the massive reformation of remuneration system for the bureaucrats, the quota and salaries for I’ye (吏隷 ; clerks), who were in charge of practical and miscellaneous services, were arranged in moderate numbers. Official budget, which includes salaries, operating costs, and more, were allotted to main administrative organizations, as well as agencies such as Hyangsoch'ŏng (鄕所廳 ; Local Yangban Association for Supervision of Local Clerks), Changgwanch'ŏng (將官廳 ; Office for Local Military Officers), Schools (學校), Military Garrisons (鎭), Stations (驛), and Granaries (漕倉). Yu Hyŏngwŏn’s planning on reformation of state finance was composed of two key points ; first, Yu designed the soundness of the state finance by expanding tax revenues on a broad scale through the Kongjŏn system, and second, he pursued the stability of the personnel like bureaucrats and clerks by achieving innovative improvements in their treatments through compiling their optimal salaries in the regular budget, to assure the performance of their duties. 유형원은 公田으로부터 확보한 經費를 量入爲出의 원칙하에 중앙재정과 지방재정으로 나누어 편성한 후, 당시 도별로 확대 시행되고 있던 대동법의 제도적 원리를 국가재정 전반에 확대 적용하여 운영하고자 했다. 중앙재정에는 왕실재 정의 축소와 각급기관의 수요품 조달을 위한 적정 예산을 책정한 것 외에 녹봉 으로 표현되는 각종 인건비성 경비가 대략 7할에 육박했으며 대대적인 확충이 가해진 지방재정의 경우에도 인건비성 경비는 반 이상을 차지했다. 관료에 대한 보수체계 개혁과 함께 실무와 잡역을 담당한 吏隷에 대해서도 각급기관별로 적정의 정원과 녹봉이 책정되었다. 주요 행정기관은 물론 鄕所廳․將官廳․學 校․鎭․驛․漕倉 등의 기관에도 녹봉과 운영비 등 공식적인 예산이 배정되었 다. 유형원의 국가재정개혁구상은 공전제를 통한 대대적인 세수확충을 통해 국가재정의 건실함을 꾀하고 官僚․吏隷 등의 인력에 대한 적정의 녹봉을 정규 예산에 편성하여 획기적인 처우 개선을 이룸으로써 이들이 도덕적 해이에 빠지지 않고 안정적으로 직무에 임할 수 있도록 한 것이 핵심적인 내용을 구성했다.

        • 교육대학생의 교직에 관한 의식(Ⅲ) : 춘천교육대학을 중심으로

          宋楊燮 춘천교육대학 학생지도연구소 1987 學生生活硏究 Vol.12 No.-

          This study is purposed on the presenting essential materials for the improvement on the teacher training system, the management for the curriculum and the guidance with the analyzing the students' angels on the teaching profession. This study is made by analyzing the results of the study 1983 and of the study 1986. This survey in divided into 6 areas. ① The basic angles on the teaching profession, ② The angles on the teaching activities, ③ The angles on the human relations, ④ The angles on the education of children, ⑤ The angles on the social recognition of teaching profession, ⑥ etc., Conducting this survey, I suggest some proposals as follows. ① It is necessary to establish the systems that students can apply for the teaching profession with the firm beliefs and a sense of duty on the teaching profession. ② It is necessary to reinforce the training for the preparation, producing materials for the lesson. ③ It is also necessary to change the students' recognition that the educational administrative authorities are supporting positively for the teaching activities of teachers. ④ It is necessary to train the future-teachers that they should have devote themselves to the children with the full understandings and warm affections, and should be reinforced with the beliefs that they can increase the effectiveness in education without chastisement in classroom. ⑤ It is also necessary to improve the training systems for the high professional qualification with the rise in teachers' social status and to produce the atmosphere that the autonomy of teachers can be respected.

        • 교육대학생의 교직에 관한 의식 : 춘천교육대학생을 중심으로

          宋楊燮 춘천교육대학 학생지도연구소 1982 學生生活硏究 Vol.7 No.-

          This study is purposed on the presenting essential materials for the improvements on the teacher training system, the management for the curriculum and the guidance with the analyzing the students' angles on the teaching profession. 347 students in Chun Cheon Teachers College served as subjects. This survey is divided into 6 area ① The basic angles on the teaching profession, ② The angles on the teaching activties, ③ The angles on the human relations, ④ The angles on the education of children, ⑤ The angles on the social recognition of teaching profession, ⑥ etc, . Conducting this survey, I suggest some proposals as follows. ① It is necessary to establish systems that students can apply for the teaching profession with the firm beliefs and a sense of duty on the teaching profession. ② It is necessary to reinforce the training for the preparation, producing materials for the lesson. ③ It is also necessary to change the students'recognition that the educational administrative authorities are supporting positively for the teaching activities of teachers. ④ It is necessary to train the future-teachers that they should have devote themselves to the children with the full understandings and warm affections. ⑤ It is necessary to improve the training systems for the high professional qualification,the rise in teachers' social status and to produce the atmosphere that the autonomy of teachers can be respected.

        • 교육대학생의 교직에 관한 의식 : 춘천교육대학생을 중심으로

          宋楊燮 춘천교육대학 학생지도연구소 1984 學生生活硏究 Vol.9 No.-

          This study is purposed on the presenting essential materials for the improvements on the teacher training system, the management for the curriculum and the guidance with the analyzing the students' angles on the teaching profession. 302 students in Chun Cheon Teachers College served as subjects, This survey is devided into 6 areas ① The basic angles on the teaching profession, ② The angles on the teaching activities, ③ The angles on the human relations, ④ The angles on the education of children, ⑤ The angles on the social recognition of teaching profession, ⑥ etc, . Conducting this survey.I suggest some proposals as follows. ① It is necessary to establish the systems that students can apply for the teaching profession with the firm beliefs and a sense of duty on the teaching profession. ② It is necessary to reinforce the traning for the preparation, producing materials for the lesson. ③ It is also necessary to change the students' recognition that the educational administrative authorities are supporting positively for the teaching activities of teachers. ④ It is necessary to train the future-teachers that they should have devote themselves to the children with the full understandings and warm affections. ⑤ It is also necessary to improve the training systems for the high professional qualification,the rise in teachers' social status and to produce the atmosphere that the autonomy of teachers can be respected.

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