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The purpose of this study was to evaluate critical thinking ability of college students through scientific writing about the life cloning. Subjects were 83 college students, who attended the lecture class, "Understanding of biological Sciences", one of liberal arts. They were freshmen and sophomore of 35 students in the natural science course and 48 students in the humanity course (32 males and 51 females). The instrument to evaluate critical thinking ability consisted of 6 components, which were purpose, information, concept (idea), assumption, conclusion and view. They were lacking in critical thinking ability. Especially, they had the lowest level in view component of them. The results of this study suggested that it is necessary to develop teaching contents and programs to stimulate critical thinking. College students need to be provided with educational tools to strengthen the underlying reasoning of knowledge and to be taught thinking skills to capture important key elements of reasoning.
The purpose of this study was to develop teaching strategies with the use of self-reflective and co-reflective thinking strategies and to examine the effect of application of them. Subjects were 156 11th graders in 4 high school biology classes. They were divided into experimental group and controlled group. Experimental group was taught using self-reflective and co-reflective thinking strategies and controlled group was taught using traditional teacher-centered instruction. There was significant difference between experimental and controlled groups (p<.01) in terms of biology achievement. There was also significant difference between three level of groups (high-achievement, midachievement and low-achievement groups) (p<.01) when comparing the result of their achievement. When examining students' recognition level using self-reflective and co-reflective thinking strategies, this study showed positive result that they were more interested and motivated in the learning process and teaching strategies using self-reflective and co-reflective thinking method were very positive teaching method in terms of students' academic performance. Thus, it concluded that the use of self-reflective and co-reflective thinking strategies was effective teaching method.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of scientific creativity according to the gender and talented division of scientifically gifted middle school students. To do this, the question to assess the scientific creativity was developed and applied it to 276 scientifically gifted students, and we compared the creativity level according to the gender and talented division. The scientific creativity of middle school scientifically gifted students was evaluated on the basis of six factors such as sensitivity, fluency, elaboration, logicality, empiricality, and originality. As a result, even though the scientific creativity of scientifically gifted students was found to be very low, their level scientific creativity depends on the gender and talented division. There was the significant correlation between factors of the scientific creativity of middle school scientifically gifted students. Especially, it showed a high correlation among originality, elaboration and empiricality. It suggested that educational approaches should be needed to improve their scientific creativity including teaching and learning methods and strategies in accordance with the gender and talented division, and continuously carried out.
The purpose of this study was to analyze inquiry activity types in the integrated science textbooks, which are developed on the basis of the 2015 revised science curriculum for high school students, and compare them according to areas and publishers. In the integrated science textbooks, there were various inquiry activity types such as experiment and observation, investigation, discussion and presentation, interpretation of data, debate, science writing, simulation and expression activity. It seems that attempts and efforts have been made to include student-centered inquiry activities with the purpose of science curriculum. But, investigation, discussion and presentation, and interpretation of data are more than other inquiry activities in the integrated science textbooks. The largest number of inquiry activities were presented in the environmental and energy unit among the four units of the integrated science textbooks(material and regularity, systems and interaction, change and diversity, environment and energy). There was the difference of the proportions of inquiry activity types and the number of inquiry activities according to publishers and units. Thus, authors and publishers should be provided the considerations of directions, teaching and learning methods, the linkage of units, etc. for developing integrated science textbooks.
In this study, inquiry activity types in the high school Life ScienceⅠ textbooks according to the 2015 revised science curriculum were analyzed and compared according to units and publishers. There are various inquiry types in life scienceⅠ textbooks, which seemed to be considered for student-centered activities. There are higher proportion of interpretation of dada and investigation-discussion among inquiry activities, and experiment-observation inquiry activity is less than average proportion, Even though various inquiry activities are aiming for students to participate in class by utilizing diverse teaching and learning methods in biology education, a few inquiry activity are contained in life scienceⅠ textbooks. In addition to teacher-centered research, student-centered inquiry should be pursued and various inquiry activities should be applied to life science class. It is necessary to continually monitor whether the purpose of the 2015 revised science curriculum is applied and reflected in the science class at the school site, and should be complemented by follow-up research.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the science key competencies presented in the inquiry activities of high school integrated science textbooks, which were compared and analyzed according to learning area and publishers. Inquiry activities were analyzed and categorized into 5 science key competencies such as scientific thinking ability, scientific inquiry ability, scientific problem solving ability, scientific communication ability, and scientific participation and lifelong learning ability. As a result of analyzing the science key competencies reflected in the inquiry activities, scientific thinking ability, scientific communication ability, and scientific inquiry ability were higher than others, and closely related to each other. While scientific participation and lifelong learning ability were reflected to a lesser extent. And it was found that there was a deviation of science key competencies of inquiry activities according to the publisher. To enhance science education in accordance with the purpose of the 2015 revision of science national curriculum, it should be to foster science key competencies at the school site, and various teaching and learning materials, methods and strategies related to them should be developed and provided.
In this study, the types of inquiry activities presented in grade 3 and 4 science textbooks according to the 2015 revised science curriculum were analyzed. They were compared according to grade level and five areas. The science textbooks for elementary 3rd and 4th graders contain many different types of inquiry activities, and are designed to cultivate science and core competencies through student-focused inquiry classes. As a result of analyzing the types of inquiry activities presented in the five areas of motion and energy(physics), materials(chemistry), life (lifesciences), earth and space(earth sciences), and integration, the experiment and observation activities were the most common. Earth and space were the most simulated because of the nature of subjects that were difficult to experiment and observe. In order to achieve the goal of science education in elementary school, inquiry activities should be presented in consideration of students' cognitive level, curriculum content, and subject areas.
The science inquiry-experiment is new subject developed for high school students according to the2015 revised science national curriculum. The subject was focused on improving scientific inquiry ability of high school students on the basis of the inquiry and experiment. We examined characteristics of inquiry activities presented in science inquiry-experiment textbooks. In order to do this types of inquiry activities presented in science inquiryexperimenttextbooks were comparatively analyzed according to units and publishers. Types of inquiry activities were categorized into experiment & observation, data interpretation,investigation-discourse & presentation, discussion, expression, science writing, and simulation. Experiment and observation, data interpretation, investigation-discourse &presentation, and expression were more among them, the other hand, discussion, science writing and simulation were somewhat presented. As a result, there were some differences in activity types and frequency according to the publishers. Science inquiry-experiment teachers need to proceed with the teaching and learning process by appropriately modifying inquiry contents and types of inquiry. Itis necessary to continuously monitor whether the objectives of the 2015 revised science national curriculum are being applied and reflected through on-site science classes, and supplement them through subsequent studies.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the key competencies of science subject in inquiry activities of elementary science textbooks based of 2015 revised national curriculum. They were examined to be presented in inquiry activities in elementary science textbooks according to grade and five areas such as material, movement and life, movement and energy earth and space, integration. Scientific inquiry ability and scientific thinking ability among science subject competencies were more emphasized than others in totally elementary science textbooks. As the grade level increases, the proportion of scientific inquiry ability in inquiry activities decreases slightly and that of scientific thinking ability increase. Regardless of grades and areas, scientific inquiry ability was the highest portion than other science subject competencies, but scientific thinking ability was the highest portion than others in material, life and integration areas of the 6th grade textbooks. It is necessary to explore ways to improve more evenly subject competencies reflected for elementary school students in science classes.