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From its foundation, America had been deeply rooted in transatlantic experiences. In recent critical discourse, transatlantic studies have played a significant part in reading early American novel. Accordingly, it has been argued that the category of early American novel should expand to include novels which have transatlantic background and theme. Susanna Rowson`s Reuben and Rachel can be one prominent example of this new reading. Reuben and Rachel delineates a fictionalized history of Columbus, who becomes the founder not only of a new nation, but of the extended family that the novel represents through ten generations. This family history involves a series of transatlantic crossings and encounters between two different racial identities. I argue that the novel represents transatlantic hybridity, a term which I use in recourse to Homi Bhabha`s concept. Even with its depiction of some cases of hybridization between two different cultures, however, Reuben and Rachel reinscribes American national identity. Although transatlantic hybridity represented in the novel apparently points to a subversive implication that the nation was founded on the premise that it liberally incorporated the Other, Reuben and Rachel, the tenth generation from Columbus himself, are described to position themselves as the most virtuous citizens of the American Republic in the end. Despite its potential for transatlantic interpretation, then, Reuben and Rachel again corroborates the argument that the rise of the American novel is closely interrelated with building the new nation in its nascent phase.
This paper examines Dr. Sloper`s house in Henry James` Washington Square (1880) as a space of discourses in conflict. There appears, in Washington Square, multiple discourses, such as the discourse about the emerging metropolis, a critique of sentimental romance, and the comparison between Europe and America. Dr. Sloper, an author of those discourses, maintains his control over the house by ruling out the chances of other discourses which might destroy it. Dr. Sloper`s way of ruling discourses includes a prohibition, an exclusion, a reasonable judgement, and an induction which are similar principles to those presented by Michel Foucault. In the house, dominated by her father`s discourses, Catherine Sloper has had no chance to express her own voice. However, as she meets Mrs. Penniman and Morris Townsend, and recognizes the world beyond her father`s order, Catherine comes to realize that her father`s order is not reasonable but vicious. Catherine gradually tries to hold her own private space separated from that of her father, which promotes to disrupt Dr. Sloper`s order. This means not only that Dr. Sloper no longer predominates over Catherine but also that she now ``performs`` the role of an ‘author`` who employs irony. In the end, Catherine establishes her own order of discourse in the house and finds her own voice,
Critics of early American novels have argued that the rise of the American novel was deeply rooted in the idea of building the American Republic in its nascent phase. In recent critical discourse, however, this thesis has been counterattacked by other critics who emphasize that migration and interaction across the Atlantic were a palpable fact in early American world. In fact, transatlantic studies leads us to reconsider the naming of William Hill Brown``s The Power of Sympathy (1789) as the first American novel. On the basis of transatlanticism, this paper attempts to open a possibility of embracing many works before Brown``s The Power of Sympathy as part of the American novel. Following this argument, this paper explores Unca Eliza Winkfield``s The Female American (1767) as one of the American novels. As one of Robinsonades, the novel presents an anti-domestic adventure story rendered in the transatlantic and American context. The central character is a woman who is biracial, multilingual, and boasts a transnational heritage. By projecting an ideal vision of a racially-intermixed female``s active participation in building a new nation, the novel turns out to be a kind of American national fantasy. Given these factors, the novel may be safely called as the American novel. However, the point of a transatlantic perspective is not only to recover similar novels as the American novel, but also to raise an awareness of rethinking the boundary of the American novel.
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In recent literary studies, transatlanticism has provided an important framework through which literary texts can be explored and re-explored. Transatlantic studies draws attention to the ways in which ideas of crossing and connection have helped to rethink the ways in which national identity is constructed. As Arjun Appadurai and Benedict Anderson have noted, modern nations are constructed as "imagined communities" through acts of collective imagination. The borders of a nation are now conceived to be permeable to the reciprocal flow of cultures. Transatlanticism serves as a way of unsettling our preconceived idea about the 'exceptional' American literature, not only as a geographic location of material and economic exchange, but also as a metaphor for the transmission of aesthetic and ideological forms. This paper attempts to suggest a possibility of reconceiving American Literature, drawing on the transatlantic perspective with a specific focus on the early American novel. The idea of the transatlantic is inseparable from early America in which exchange, migration and interaction were given conditions. Naturally, early American literature always concerned itself with relations and dialogues, despite the exceptionalist claims of earlier exponents of American Studies. So it is now necessary to review the critical argument that the rise of the American novel is closely intertwined with the emergence of the new nation. In the early Republic of America, homogeneity and singularity increasingly give way to transnational spaces of relation and hybridity. Seen in transatlantic perspective, then, it can be argued that the category of early American novel should be redefined to embrace novels with transatlantic dimension. The transatlnatic view thus, provides a way of opening up the canon of American literature to a much wider range of writing.
Arguably, Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s whole life was a process of struggling against her deep-seated anxiety about losing her mind, vividly fictionalized in her famous short story, “The Yellow Wallpaper.” Through her writing, however, Gilman tried to cope with her trouble caused by oppressive domesticity imposed upon women. Furthermore, Gilman saw her trouble not only as her own, but also as that of women of her day. In this respect, writing provided Gilman with the opportunity to depict alternative ways of defining domesticity. This paper examines how Gilman’s writing becomes a tool for healing woman’s plight by reading some of her short stories and poems. In these works, Gilman portrays how women are in the state of lethargy and tiredness in the idealized space of the home which was in effect the locus of women’s oppression. Gilman presents alternative ways of looking at the long-held conventional ideas about domestic womanhood, of revising the distinctions between male and female roles, and of advancing radically new plans of domesticity. Ultimately, writing these works functions as a therapeutic process for Gilman in which she freely creates a fictional space where formidable cultural prescriptions of domesticity are adjusted and remodel led, and readers are in turn invited to share the process of healing the invalid status of womanhood.
이 글은 피츠제럴드의 <야곱의 사다리>(1927)의 등장인물인 야곱과 제니의 관계를 문학치료적인 상황을 드러내는 것으로 살펴보려고 한다. 초기의 문학치료는 읽기 중심의 독서치료가 주를 이루었으며 이는 참여자와 문학의 일대일 관계 속에서 진행되었다. 하지만 상호작용적인 독서치료에 이르러서는 촉진자와 참여자 그리고 텍스트의 삼자 구도를 통한 치료 방법을 사용하면서 촉진자의 역할이 중요해졌다. 이러한 구도 속에서 촉진자는 참여자와의 상호작용을 통하여 적절한 반응을 이끌어낼 수 있어야 한다. 작품에서 야곱이 제니가 가진 문제들을 해결하고 배우가 되도록 도와주는 과정은 상호작용적 독서치료에서 촉진자가 참여자의 문제해결을 위하여 돕는 것 과 유사하게 진행된다. 참여자로서 제니는 가정결손, 낮은 지능,목적 없는 삶 등 십대 청소년들이 가질 수 있는 문제점들을 가지고 있으며, 촉진자로서 야곱은 그녀의 환경 및 교육수준 등을 적절하게 파악하여 해결 방법을 제시해줄 필요가 있다. 현명한 촉진자로서 야곱은 제니의 지적 수준을 파악하고 텍스트로서 책 대신에 다양한 상황들을 제시해 준다. 현대의 독서치료 역시 책에 한정하는 것이 아니라 비디오,연극, 그림 등 다양한 재료들을 텍스트로서 활용하여 서로 다른 수준의 참여자들에게 적용하고 있다. 야곱과 제니의 만남과 대화는 그 자체로서 문학치료의 모습을 하고 있으며, `도입단계-작업 단계-통합 단계_새 방향 설정 단계1로 구성된 테트라 시스템과 유사하게 진행된다. 이러한 과정들을 통하여 제니는 자신의 미숙한 언어 수준을 향상시키고,대인관계 기술을 습득하고、강인한 자아를 가짐으로써 완벽하게 사회 속에 편입된다. 특히 제니의 편입과정이 단순하게 사회 시스템의 요구에 대한 순응이 아니라 전통적인 여성의 이미지와는 다른 새로운 개성을 지닌 여성으로서 온전하게 받아들여졌다는 점에 있어서 그녀의 성장과 발전은 가치를 지닌다 This paper examines the relationship between Jacob and Jenny in F. Scott Fitzgerald`s〈Jacob`s Ladder>(1927) in view of the context of literary therapy With its change of emphasis on from reading to interactive process, interactive bibliotherapy emphasizes the role of a facilitator and purposes to remedy problems through the triad of participant-literature-facilitator. In the triad, facilitators must make their efforts to produce positive effects by interacting with participants. In 〈Jacob`s Ladder,> the relationship between Jacob and Jenny resembles that between a facilitator and a participant. Jacob, a scouter, leads Jenny to be an actress and helps to solve a myriad of her problems as if a facilitator deals with a participant`s mental problems. Jenny, from a broken family, is a teenager girl with adolescent problems such as low education level and an aimless life. Taking her backgrounds into account, Jacob wisely gives her different situations not a book, as a text. As a matter of fact, in the current bibliotherapy, a text is not limited to a book but includes a variety of materials-videos, plays, pictures and so on. The process of Jenny becoming an actress shows Tetra System of bibliotherapy, which consists of Initial phase, Action phase. Integration phase, and Reorientation phase. Going through such a remedy, Jenny enriches her vocabulary and develops social sldlls. Thus, she can finally assimilate herself to the mainstream society. It is crucial that her assimilation means that existing society accepts a new woman who has an individuality different from that of a traditional woman.
This paper first examines how a boarding school functions as a site for disciplining a female subject into a virtuous citizen of the early American Republic in Hannah Webster Foster`s The Boarding School (1798). Composed of two parts, the first part of the book gives a detailed description of what should be taught to female students for them to play a virtuous role in society. In accordance with the cultural norms prescribed by the Republican Womanhood, the female students at a fictionalized boarding school superintended by Mrs, Williams, learn various subjects, such as reading, writing, arithmetic, music and dancing, only to serve better for the society by supporting and raising virtuous citizens as a wife and mother. Students also learn proper moral behaviors about various topics, such as dress code, polite behavior, filial and fraternal affection, friendship, love, and religion. Part Two shows the interchange of letters between Mrs. Williams and students, and among students themselves. On the one hand, this letter exchange process well illustrates how the students communicate with each other to consolidate and spread the dominant discourse indoctrinated at school even after they leave the school. Yet, on the other, this epistolatory interaction shows the formation of a strong bond among students, suggesting that there is a slight possibility of subversion in which this female friendship functions as a separate space for female autonomy and independence against dominant norms.
This paper examines how sympathy works as an effective medium for producing a consensus between members of the nation in William Hill Brown`s The Power of Sympathy (1789). The text delineates a tragic story of Harrington and Harriot who nearly escape an incestuous relationship because of their father`s wrongdoing. Deeply shocked, Harriot loses her health and dies, while Harrington shoots himself. By warning about the threats of seduction to the family, a microcosm of the nation, and emphasizing the importance of female eduction, the novel emphasizes that the members of the new Republic need to educate themselves into proper citizens, taking an epistolary form, the novel amplifies the educative function through the multiple exchange of letters between the characters, A variety of perspectives presented by each letter-writer produces polyphonic heteroglossia in Bakhtin`s term. However, as the title suggests, sympathy promotes to reconcile disparate standpoints of each letter-writer. Mrs. Holmes and Worthy represent a voice of proper citizens, and function as a center of sympathy and consensus between letter-writers. As a result, the process of producing sympathy turns out to be a process of exerting power over citizens through discipline in Foucauldian sense. Sympathy plays a double role in building a nation as ``an imagined community,`` and exercising power over its citizens. I argue that this project of building a nation and educating citizens properly helps to enthrone The Power of Sympathy as the first American novel.
This paper attempts to show that storytelling is important in language learning and identity formation for those who (im)migrated to the West in Willa Cather`s My Antonia. Jim Burden and Antonia Shimerda share the same need to settle down in a totally new place, although they differ in nationality, language and culture. Experiencing the language barrier as a primary obstacle to overcome, Antonia makes an effort to learn English. On the other hand, when Jim is isolated when other immigrants communicate with their own language, Antonia translates their stories into English. Through many other examples, the novel shows that language serves as a necessary tool for communication and adaptation. Futhermore, storytelling plays a significant part in one`s identity formation. Many characters with (im)migrant backgrounds gain an opportunity to establish their identities by telling stories about their present life and past memories. Throughout the novel, it is poignantly suggested that storytelling serves as an effective way for language learning and identity formation.