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From its foundation, America had been deeply rooted in transatlantic experiences. In recent critical discourse, transatlantic studies have played a significant part in reading early American novel. Accordingly, it has been argued that the category of early American novel should expand to include novels which have transatlantic background and theme. Susanna Rowson`s Reuben and Rachel can be one prominent example of this new reading. Reuben and Rachel delineates a fictionalized history of Columbus, who becomes the founder not only of a new nation, but of the extended family that the novel represents through ten generations. This family history involves a series of transatlantic crossings and encounters between two different racial identities. I argue that the novel represents transatlantic hybridity, a term which I use in recourse to Homi Bhabha`s concept. Even with its depiction of some cases of hybridization between two different cultures, however, Reuben and Rachel reinscribes American national identity. Although transatlantic hybridity represented in the novel apparently points to a subversive implication that the nation was founded on the premise that it liberally incorporated the Other, Reuben and Rachel, the tenth generation from Columbus himself, are described to position themselves as the most virtuous citizens of the American Republic in the end. Despite its potential for transatlantic interpretation, then, Reuben and Rachel again corroborates the argument that the rise of the American novel is closely interrelated with building the new nation in its nascent phase.
Critics of early American novels have argued that the rise of the American novel was deeply rooted in the idea of building the American Republic in its nascent phase. In recent critical discourse, however, this thesis has been counterattacked by other critics who emphasize that migration and interaction across the Atlantic were a palpable fact in early American world. In fact, transatlantic studies leads us to reconsider the naming of William Hill Brown``s The Power of Sympathy (1789) as the first American novel. On the basis of transatlanticism, this paper attempts to open a possibility of embracing many works before Brown``s The Power of Sympathy as part of the American novel. Following this argument, this paper explores Unca Eliza Winkfield``s The Female American (1767) as one of the American novels. As one of Robinsonades, the novel presents an anti-domestic adventure story rendered in the transatlantic and American context. The central character is a woman who is biracial, multilingual, and boasts a transnational heritage. By projecting an ideal vision of a racially-intermixed female``s active participation in building a new nation, the novel turns out to be a kind of American national fantasy. Given these factors, the novel may be safely called as the American novel. However, the point of a transatlantic perspective is not only to recover similar novels as the American novel, but also to raise an awareness of rethinking the boundary of the American novel.
이 글은 피츠제럴드의 <야곱의 사다리>(1927)의 등장인물인 야곱과 제니의 관계를 문학치료적인 상황을 드러내는 것으로 살펴보려고 한다. 초기의 문학치료는 읽기 중심의 독서치료가 주를 이루었으며 이는 참여자와 문학의 일대일 관계 속에서 진행되었다. 하지만 상호작용적인 독서치료에 이르러서는 촉진자와 참여자 그리고 텍스트의 삼자 구도를 통한 치료 방법을 사용하면서 촉진자의 역할이 중요해졌다. 이러한 구도 속에서 촉진자는 참여자와의 상호작용을 통하여 적절한 반응을 이끌어낼 수 있어야 한다. 작품에서 야곱이 제니가 가진 문제들을 해결하고 배우가 되도록 도와주는 과정은 상호작용적 독서치료에서 촉진자가 참여자의 문제해결을 위하여 돕는 것 과 유사하게 진행된다. 참여자로서 제니는 가정결손, 낮은 지능,목적 없는 삶 등 십대 청소년들이 가질 수 있는 문제점들을 가지고 있으며, 촉진자로서 야곱은 그녀의 환경 및 교육수준 등을 적절하게 파악하여 해결 방법을 제시해줄 필요가 있다. 현명한 촉진자로서 야곱은 제니의 지적 수준을 파악하고 텍스트로서 책 대신에 다양한 상황들을 제시해 준다. 현대의 독서치료 역시 책에 한정하는 것이 아니라 비디오,연극, 그림 등 다양한 재료들을 텍스트로서 활용하여 서로 다른 수준의 참여자들에게 적용하고 있다. 야곱과 제니의 만남과 대화는 그 자체로서 문학치료의 모습을 하고 있으며, `도입단계-작업 단계-통합 단계_새 방향 설정 단계1로 구성된 테트라 시스템과 유사하게 진행된다. 이러한 과정들을 통하여 제니는 자신의 미숙한 언어 수준을 향상시키고,대인관계 기술을 습득하고、강인한 자아를 가짐으로써 완벽하게 사회 속에 편입된다. 특히 제니의 편입과정이 단순하게 사회 시스템의 요구에 대한 순응이 아니라 전통적인 여성의 이미지와는 다른 새로운 개성을 지닌 여성으로서 온전하게 받아들여졌다는 점에 있어서 그녀의 성장과 발전은 가치를 지닌다 This paper examines the relationship between Jacob and Jenny in F. Scott Fitzgerald`s〈Jacob`s Ladder>(1927) in view of the context of literary therapy With its change of emphasis on from reading to interactive process, interactive bibliotherapy emphasizes the role of a facilitator and purposes to remedy problems through the triad of participant-literature-facilitator. In the triad, facilitators must make their efforts to produce positive effects by interacting with participants. In 〈Jacob`s Ladder,> the relationship between Jacob and Jenny resembles that between a facilitator and a participant. Jacob, a scouter, leads Jenny to be an actress and helps to solve a myriad of her problems as if a facilitator deals with a participant`s mental problems. Jenny, from a broken family, is a teenager girl with adolescent problems such as low education level and an aimless life. Taking her backgrounds into account, Jacob wisely gives her different situations not a book, as a text. As a matter of fact, in the current bibliotherapy, a text is not limited to a book but includes a variety of materials-videos, plays, pictures and so on. The process of Jenny becoming an actress shows Tetra System of bibliotherapy, which consists of Initial phase, Action phase. Integration phase, and Reorientation phase. Going through such a remedy, Jenny enriches her vocabulary and develops social sldlls. Thus, she can finally assimilate herself to the mainstream society. It is crucial that her assimilation means that existing society accepts a new woman who has an individuality different from that of a traditional woman.
This paper examines how Sedgwick makes a political allegory of founding the nation in domestic terms in The Linwoods (1835). Set in the Revolutionary period, The Linwoods is a historical fiction reconstructed by the writer in order to diagnose currently controversial issues. In this aspect, Sedgwick`s interest in history is genealogical in Foucaudian sense. Foucault`s genealogical method provides a way of recuperating a part of history hidden, submerged, obliterated by the official history. Seen in a genealogical perspective, the story of the Linwoods can be viewed as a political allegory in order to explore political conflicts of Sedgwick`s own day. Faced with the threat of national disunion presented in the Nullification Crisis of sectional conflicts and divisions, Sedgwick attempts to provide a fictional solution to the first serious challenge to the U. S. Constitution. Going back to the times around the American Revolution, Sedgwick emphasizes how strenuously the American Constitution of America was formed as the outcome of the war against the tyranny of Britain, and how the Union was made on the basis of the cooperation between the States. By posing a contrast of political positions between family members, Sedgwick imagines a family/nation that allows diverse political positions. The conclusion of a diversity of marriages between man and woman who agree to be united after overcoming their differences in political affiliations seems to show her conservative proclivity to support the Union. However, by emphasizing the principles of freedom and equality represented by the significant role of Isabella and Rose, an African-American slave, in the victory of the American Revolution, Sedgwick also supports the spirit of the Jacksonian American democracy.
This paper attempts to show that storytelling is important in language learning and identity formation for those who (im)migrated to the West in Willa Cather`s My Antonia. Jim Burden and Antonia Shimerda share the same need to settle down in a totally new place, although they differ in nationality, language and culture. Experiencing the language barrier as a primary obstacle to overcome, Antonia makes an effort to learn English. On the other hand, when Jim is isolated when other immigrants communicate with their own language, Antonia translates their stories into English. Through many other examples, the novel shows that language serves as a necessary tool for communication and adaptation. Futhermore, storytelling plays a significant part in one`s identity formation. Many characters with (im)migrant backgrounds gain an opportunity to establish their identities by telling stories about their present life and past memories. Throughout the novel, it is poignantly suggested that storytelling serves as an effective way for language learning and identity formation.
This paper examines the phenomenon of consumer culture in which woman plays the role of consumer in Edith Wharton`s Summer. As America in the late 19th century underwent a rapid process of urbanization and commercialization, the role of woman as consumer stood out. Separated from any productive labor, woman became a primary agent of consumption. Especially, the rise of the so-called ‘leisure class`` made much of ‘conspicuous consumption.’ However, those who did not belong to the leisure class also participated in these cultural changes. Charity Royall, a resident of a small town, shares this desire for consumption as much as any woman in the city would pursue, and constantly emulates other women in pursuing her desire. When Lucius Harney comes to town, Charity is immediately allured to him because he is a city fellow representing urban power and glamor. In the end, Charity does not gain a full freedom from the rural scene, settling down to the marriage with Lawyer Royall. On the one hand, Charity`s choice of the marriage only shows how difficult a poor underprivileged woman moves upward in her status and satisfy the desire for consumption. Yet, on the other, Charity`s marriage to Royall ironically opens up a possibility for her gaining the power of consumption she has coveted after all. By showing the case of Charity, Wharton presents a realistic picture of how woman was tightly bound in her social role as the consumer and consumable.
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The flapper was seen as a popular female type of the 1920s of America. This paper examines this prevalent image of a modern young woman who had a short but intense life in American culture, by reading some works of Scott F. Fitzgerald. Best known as an epitome and a chronicler of the 1920s, Fitzgerald arguably invented and popularized the flapper image in America. This paper focuses on three short stories collected in Flappers and Philosophers (1920), "Head and Shoulders", "Bernice Bobs Her Hair," "The Offshore Pirate," and The Great Gatsby (1925), his most celebrated work. As is well shown in naming the age as the "Roaring Twenties" and people as the "Lost Generation," the postwar America underwent disorientation, turbulence, and disorder, totally having lost traditional value system. Reflecting such social changes, the flapper, as a type of the New Woman, liberated herself from the constricting identity defined by domestic ideology, and rebelliously defied traditional conventions of female virtues. Fitzgerald created vibrant female characters who are spoiled, sexually liberal, self-centered, and fun-loving, not confined to the home, but enjoy individual freedom. As such, they seemed to overcome the previous conceptions of women as `invalids` who had been represented to become ill, degenerate, and ultimately die. Fitzgerald has long been misconstrued as a spokesman for celebrating this new type of women, but his attitude was nuanced and ambivalent. He increasingly used her as a symbol not only of freedom but also of social conflict and unrest. Although Fitzgerald himself created a flapper with complexities, a more standardized flapper image instantly allured and influenced young women of the era on a wide scale, and it was popularized and spread by a stream of popular magazines, advertisements, and movies. As its popularity increased, the flapper quickly turned into a stereotypical type of woman who temporarily enjoys freedom and rebellion but finally decides to settle down to a safe home. In short, the flapper was an outright expression of individual freedom and liberated energy in one respect, and yet in the other, she served as a safe receptacle for containing social anxiety and disorder. In the aftermath of its paradoxical cultural significance, the spirit of subversion is safely contained in repetitive literary representations of modern women who are yet invalids and/or die, sexually oppressed by social restrictions which are still to be overcome long after the 1920s.
Arguably, Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s whole life was a process of struggling against her deep-seated anxiety about losing her mind, vividly fictionalized in her famous short story, “The Yellow Wallpaper.” Through her writing, however, Gilman tried to cope with her trouble caused by oppressive domesticity imposed upon women. Furthermore, Gilman saw her trouble not only as her own, but also as that of women of her day. In this respect, writing provided Gilman with the opportunity to depict alternative ways of defining domesticity. This paper examines how Gilman’s writing becomes a tool for healing woman’s plight by reading some of her short stories and poems. In these works, Gilman portrays how women are in the state of lethargy and tiredness in the idealized space of the home which was in effect the locus of women’s oppression. Gilman presents alternative ways of looking at the long-held conventional ideas about domestic womanhood, of revising the distinctions between male and female roles, and of advancing radically new plans of domesticity. Ultimately, writing these works functions as a therapeutic process for Gilman in which she freely creates a fictional space where formidable cultural prescriptions of domesticity are adjusted and remodel led, and readers are in turn invited to share the process of healing the invalid status of womanhood.