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Munch critical attention has been drawn to Virginia Woolf``s female narrators who walk the streets of London. As exemplified by the narrator(s) of A Room of One``s Own, they relish the newly gained sense of freedom and feel sympathy towards less privileged urban citizens, rather different-less noted or, at times, vilified-walkers in Woolf``s works. These women seem to be less aware of, or slightly suppress, their gender identities. They are not entirely blind to their class privileges and social inequities, yet they seem to be more interested in watching and enjoying London life from their insider perspectives. As a result, these narrators have been either ignored by several critics particularly interested in Woolf``s feminism, or condemned by others concerned with her upper-middle-class conservatism. In either case, these critics are generally in accord in that they identify the narrator with the author. However, the narrator``s “enormous eye” in, for example, the essay “Street Haunting: A London Adventure,” is not Woolf``s own. It is a typical middle-class gaze that is strategically dramatized. In other words, there is another gaze that looks at the narrator``s gaze at once within and without the narrator. By creating this “double-gaze,” Woolf invites the reader to look at the narrator``s-as well as their own-optical, epistemological and possibly political limits. In a similar way, Woolf``s six essays about London posthumously collected as The London Scene refuse to pander to the middle-class desire to indulge in enjoying and consuming the city by constantly disclosing the ethical and political blind spots of the narrator``s gaze lurking beneath the seemingly innocuous surface. In sum, Woolf``s self-consciousness as an insider demands as much attention as her sense of being an outsider does for a better understanding of her feminist social criticism. Far from being incompatible or inconsistent with her sense of a “critical” outsider, Woolf``s keen sense as an insider, and her concomitant self-criticism, makes her social criticism all the more convincing and powerful; it educates the middle-class readers to look at their own limits; and directs her modernist “inward turn” to negotiate with, and intervene into, rather than retreat from, the real world.
This paper attempts to shed new light on boredom and melancholy in D. H. Lawrence`s Women in Love. As recent studies have shown. Boredom and melancholy are not so much ahistorical, subjective malaises as at once individual and historical experiences: they are both collective and highly individualized experiences of sociocultural conditions. Indeed, doredom and melancholy in Women in Love cannot be confined to the prevailing mood of the society or the author`s mental state at the time of composition. They play an important role in representing and criticizing Western modernization. Boredom in the novel takes many different forms: it is repressed in inauthentic everydayness, obsessively poured out, or newly awakened to. Melancholy, evoked in a rather indirect way, is another fundamental mood of modern subjects attentive to their socio-historical specificity of boredom and melancholy. The novel demonstrates that boredom and melancholy may also obscure their own historicityand lose their critical distance when they are universalized and naturalized as timeless human conditions. Boredom and melancholy in the novel often lead to "contemplative paralyusis" or aesthetic practices willfully alienated from historical reality, all of which may eliminate the hope for and imagination of a better world. Thus they preclude the dialectics between the individual and society, and participate in the process of Weberian Intellectualization. Through its relentless fight against the potential dangers of boredom and melancholy combined with its acute awareness of their paradoxes and ambiguities, Women in Love seeks to offer a new mode of knowledge-knowledge which has the potential to transform the world in which boredom and melancholy emerged.
Virginia Woolf`s ambivalence towards women`s entry into the world of professions is well known; she celebrated it as an instrument for woman`s emancipation, and yet she was worried that it might lead to woman`s complicity with the evils of the social system, the system that had perpetuated inequality, injustice, and violence throughout history. Some critics value Woolf`s feminist project while others criticize her class allegiances; all of these critics tend to equate rather simplistically Woolf`s view of profession with that of masculinity, oppression, or capitalism. The purpose of this paper is to show that Woolf`s concern with profession encompasses a much broader question of constructing a freer self and community. Examining Woolf`s view of profession side by side with a lecture entitled "Science as a Vocation" by German sociologist Max Weber, this paper argues that both Woolf and Weber invite us to rethink the function and meaning of a ``profession`` in a highly professionalized society. Weber tells us how to fulfill the inner vocation of science in the age of rationalization, intellectualization, and disenchantment where science has been deprived of its authority as a universal truth about a human being and the world. Likewise, Woolf urges us to use the profession as a way of achieving a freedom from "unreal loyalties," a freedom which is a basis for a freer and more peaceful community, while remaining acutely aware of the various obstacles that professional women confront in the capitalist, patriarchal, and professional world. For both Woolf and Weber, the true vocation of professional writers and scholars in this modern world is to restore the mysteries, the obscure, the forgotten realm of life by means of working only for the sake of work. Weber and Woolf also demonstrate how the professional commitment to work can be compatible with the dialogues and collaboration between teachers and students, writers and readers. The autonomy of art and science in Weber and Woolf, therefore, does not so much reflect or aggravate the division between the individual and society as it does lead to taking a transformative participation in society. In these ways, Weber and Woolf show us how it is possible for a modernist to pursue a vocation in a world where the divine meaning of a vocation has almost lost its ground.
In the current PDP technology, one of the most important issues in AC-PDP is improvement of luminance and luminous efficacy. To improve luminance and luminous efficacy, an AC-PDP cell having long discharge path and high Xe contents are essential. In this paper, According to xenon contents, I investigate about electrical - optical Characteristics through two-dimensional simulation.
The "ethical turn" in literary criticism that has increased since the 1990s is highly relevant to readings of Ian McEwan`s recent novels. Besides the author`s own emphasis on morality and the ethics of the novel on various occasions, many critics, particularly those who address McEwan`s oeuvre in relation to the tradition of English realism, directly or indirectly focus on the narrative ethics and/or morality of McEwan`s fictions. The debate over the moral implication of Saturday is extremely polarized. While some critics have praised it for realistically capturing the feel of post-September 11 life or for the protagonist Henry Perowne`s moral victory, others have faulted it for replicating what Paul Gilroy termed "postcolonial melancholia," a psychological condition prevalent in the First World, especially in the UK and the US, revealed in increasing anxiety about personal safety in the face of the threatening social, racial, cultural, and/or postcolonial Other. Despite the differences, many criticisms about Saturday share several assumptions. The first is the assumption that realism is morally superior to modernism. The second is that the author is basically sympathetic rather than critical toward his protagonist. And finally, by reading Saturday as a story about an ordinary family that survives the attempted murder and rape by a pathological home intruder, Baxter, and especially by regarding Baxter as an allegory of the vengeful Other-the lower-class, the Saddam Hussein, or the Third World-they reveal prejudice and hostility toward the socio-cultural or racial Other, a tendency that provokes an urgent need to examine carefully the ethics of the criticism that stresses the ethics of the novel in the post-colonial, multicultural era. Borrowing Frank Kermode`s notions of the "secrets" that disturb and contradict "narrative sequences," this paper argues first, that far from simply normalizing or endorsing Henry`s perspectives and attitudes toward Baxter, Saturday creates critical distances within the text by pointing to Henry`s shallow moral consciousness, hypocrisy, and his self-serving blindness to the agony of the Other. Second, this paper demonstrates that the limits and the achievements of Saturday in its dramatization of the confrontation of the privileged with the less privileged can be better understood by looking at the ways in which Mrs. Dalloway-one of the texts that Saturday most explicitly echoes-gives a voice to the social Other and creates a space for the mutual understanding and genuine sympathy between human beings. In sum, this paper, by reading Saturday not simply as a story about a family that survives unexpected terrorism, but as a story about a man who wishes to survive in a world that constantly marginalizes, obliterates, and/or criminalizes him, proposes that McEwan`s novel urges us to move beyond the postcolonial melancholia.