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Objectives: This study was performed to evaluate the neurototoxicity of the environmental pollutant lead acetate(LA) and the protective effect of the D-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid(APV), N-methyl-D-aspartate(NMDA) receptor antagonist on LA-induced cytotoxicity in cultured C6 glioma cells. Materials and Methods: For this study, cell viability in cultured C6 glioma cells was assessed by XTT assay and antioxidative effect, such as lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) activity, by LDH detection kit. Results: LA significantly decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, and the XTT50 value was determined to be 33.3 uM of LA. The cytotoxicity of LA was deemed highly toxic according to Borenfreund and Puerner's toxic criteria. The vitamin E antioxidant significantly increased cell viability damaged by LA-induced cytotoxicity in these cultures. For the protective effect of APV on LA-induced cytotoxicity, APV significantly increased not only cell viability, but also inhibition of LDH activity. From these results, it is suggested that oxidative stress is involved in the neurotoxicity of LA, and APV effectively protected against LA-induced cytotoxicity via an antioxidative effect as an inhibotory activity of LDH. Conclusions: Natural resources like APV may be putative therapeutic agents for the toxic diminution of environmental pollutants such as LA correlated with oxidative stress.
This study was done to evaluate the dermatoxicity of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and the protective effect of Rubus parvifolius L. (RP) extract on cytotoxicity of ZnSO4, mordant in cultured SK-MEL-3 cells. For this study, it was done an antioxidative effect as DPPH-radical scavenging ability as well as the diminutive ability of total melanin with cell viability. ZnSO4 significantly decreased cell viability in dose-dependently, and it was mid-toxic. The ascorbic acid significantly increased cell viability damaged by ZnSO4-induced cytotoxicity. In the protective effect of RP extract on ZnSO4-induced cytotoxicity, RP extract significantly increased cell viability compared with ZnSO4-treated group, and also it showed both the DPPH-radical scavenging ability and the decrease of total amount of melanin. From these findings, the cytotoxicity of ZnSO4 is correlated with oxidative stress, and also RP extract effectively protected ZnSO4–induced cytotoxicity via antioxidative effect such as DPPH-radical scavenging ability with the whitening effect by the decrement of total amount of melanin. Conclusively, the natural ingredients like RP extract may be a useful agent for the improvement of antioxidative and whitening effects 본 연구는 매염제인 황산아연(ZnSO4)의 피부독성을 배양 피부세포주인 SK-MEL-3 세포를 재료로 산화적 손상 측면에서의 조사와 함께 ZnSO4의 독성에 대한 멍석딸기(RP)의 영향을 항산화와 미백효과 측면에서 알아보았다. 본 실험을 위하여, 세포생존율, DPPH-라디칼 소거능 및 melanin합성 저해능을 분석하였다. 본 연구에서 ZnSO4는 농도 의존적으로 세포생존율을 유의하게 감소시켰으며, XTT50값이 173.3 uM로 중간 독성으로 나타났다. 또한, 항산화제의 일종인 ascorbic acid는 ZnSO4에 의하여 손상된 세포생존율을 유의하게 증가시켰다. 한편, ZnSO4의 독성에 대한 RP 추출물의 영향에서, RP 추출물 처리는 유의한 세포생존율의 증가와 함께 DPPH-라디칼 소거능과 melanin합성 저해능을 통하여 항산화와 미백효과를 나타냈다. 결론적으로, RP 추출물과 같은 천연성분은 향후 항산화제와 미백제로서의 대체물질 개발에 있어 활용적 가치가 클 것으로 생각된다.
This research extends a general theory of cognition to address cognitive constraints on complex command production and allows us to make system design recommendations. The research described in this paper addresses the cognitive origins of problems user have producing sequence-dependent command strings while interacting with the UNIX operating system. We describe an empirical and theoretical analysis of user difficulties, and then show how our analyses lead to design recommendations. In addition, we summarize results from testing the impact of our design recommendations on system usability