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This paper aims at examining Carver``s short stories in terms of two contrasting attitudes to life, represented by closed consciousness and open consciousness. Characters with closed consciousness in Carver``s earlier stories reveal a gloomy outlook on life; characters with open consciousness in his later stories show a positive attitude to life. The study also discusses the short story of “Feathers,” focusing on contrasting character traits of two married couples. Closed consciousness is bespoken by Carver``s main characters who feel lost and frustrated, as in the short stories “Pastoral,” “Will You Please Be Quiet, Please?” and “What We Talk about When We Talk about Love.” However, an example of open consciousness is best shown in the contrast between “Bath” and its revised lengthy version, “A Small Good Thing”; the shorter version vocalizes the mental state of a panic-stricken mother contemplating her son``s impending death, whereas the revised one stresses the positive attitude of a mother who gets ready to start life without her son, overcoming her grief. An analysis of “Feathers” focuses on the contrasting lifestyles and thinking of two couples: Jack and Fan, and Bud and Olla. Jack and Fran with their closed consciousness are most interested in enjoying their present comfort, neither wanting any nuisance in their marriage nor attempting to achieve anything. Nevertheless, this couple decides to have a baby when they get seduced by the happy life of Bud and Olla despite their indescribably ugly son and his intimidating playmate peacock. Ultimately Fran and Jack, who have never been aware of parental roles and responsibility, get perplexed and lose their way in child-raising. By contrast, Olla and Bud with their open consciousness are characterized by their future-oriented goal setting. The life stories of Olla``s childhood as well as her first and second marriages are recapitulated by her peacock (an emblem of her pursuit of happiness) and by her old plaster-of-Paris cast of crooked and jagged teeth (a reminder of what she was then and what she is thankful for now). Unlike Fran and Jack, Olla and Bud take lessons from the past and project their present conditions into the future. In “Feathers” Carver uses the unhappy couple with no perspective on life as a foil for the happy couple who plans their life and sets goals for a better life.
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통신 서비스 시장의 패러다임이 유선 음성통신에서 무선의 데이터 통신으로 급속히 확산되고 있다. 이러한 통신시장의 변화를 수용하기 위해서는 고속의 전송속도에 근거한 다양한 서비스 제공과 아울러 인터넷 응용에 기반한 다양한 서비스들이 제공되어 기존의 이동통신망의 제한성을 탈피한 고품질의 이동통신망들의 구성이 요구된다. 이러한 고속통신을 수용하기 위해서는 무선 신호처리 기술, 광대역 전송기술, 첨단 이동통신망 구축 기술이 필수적이며, 효율적인 운용 기술에 의한 가입자 서비스의 수용 또한 요구되어 진다. 디지털 이동통신 시스템의 기반 기술로 활용되어 온 CDMA 다중접속 방식은 음성, SMS, 회선 데이터 서비스를 제공하기 위한 IS-95A/B 시스템 과 3세대 이동통신 시스템의 규격으로 평가받고 있는 동기방식 CDMA2000, 비동기방식 WCDMA 기술 등이 개발되고 있다. 본 논문에서는 CDMA2000-1X 이동통신 시스템의 망 구조 및 특징을 분석하고, 각 서비스 제공 방안 분석을 통하여 차세대 이동통신망에서의 효율적인 망 구성방안의 기초자료로 도출하며, 3세대 이동통신망의 차세대 이동통신망으로의 진화 전략과 아울러 망 진화를 위하여 요구되는 핵심기술 등을 분석하였다. The large portion of communication service areas move from a legacy wire-line voice service to mobile data service. For the purpose of satisfaction on market need, many communication systems should be installed and upgraded based on a mobile wide-band transmission facility. Recently, large part of communication service is based on internet protocol by packet switch techniques and required new technologies such as multimedia processing, QoS achievement, and mobility managememobile communication network such as IS-95A/B and CDMA2000-1X. In this paper, I analyzed the network architecture and service provision methods. in CDMA2000-1X nt. In korea, a CDMA communication technique is standardized for digital mobile communication systems. By using the analysed results, I will extract an efficient method for network evolution and a core technique for next generation mobile communication network.
As Oedipa Mass, the heroine of Thomas Pynchon`s The Crying of Lot 49, is apparently associated with Oedipus, the hero in Sophocles` tragedy, this paper aims to show some of their similarities in quest theme and plot development as well as in the use of dramatic irony. Oedipus the King opens with a priest`s pleas to relieve the Theban people from a plague and the king`s promise to rid its cause by avenging the murder of the former king, as told by the oracle. Lot 49 begins as a Los Angeles law firm informs Oedipa that she is named as the executrix in her former lover Inverarity`s will to sort out the mogul`s estate. Ironically, however, Oedipus` investigation reveals himself to be the very cause of the national disaster, the murderer for whom he searched. Likewise, Oedipa starts her inquiry dedicating herself to make sense out of what Inverarity had left behind, only to find that the legacy was America. Sophocles and Pynchon both employ dramatic irony to provide a controlling principle for plot development in their works. In Oedipus the King, Sophocles creates mounting tension as well as distance between the reader`s knowledge and the protagonist`s ignorance, compressing the play`s action into the moment that Oedipus discovers his real identity. For dramatic irony, however, Pynchon tends to work through authorial comments and utilize allegorical meanings of the characters` names, directing his novel at illuminating Oedipa`s discovery of Inverarity`s legacy as well as the meaning of Tristero, an underground postal service system. Unlike Oedipus the King that proceeds on a single line of action, Lot 49 develops in esoteric, multi-layered allusions and intricately-interrelated double strains involving Oedipa`s roles as executrix and quester. At the end of Sophocles` tragedy, Oedipus stabs his eyes and decides to live in exile, realizing that, blinded, he begot his children through his mother; Oedipa comes to a painful realization that she allowed her former lover to create death-orienting America without her diversity and moral system in old times. As Oedipa now discovers herself through her search for Tristero, her tragic spirit lies in her determination to confront her binary choices between two Americas: transcendence or entropy, the Tristero possibility or Inverarity`s America. Ultimately, Oedipa tries to find who will be the bidder for the Tristero forged stamps designated as lot 49, awaiting the auctioneer`s cry and the "crying" of a new-born America.
John le Carre``s The Constant Gardener is basically an anti-conspiracy thriller with some elements of the detective novel, but the plot develops around the hero Justin Quayle``s tragic consciousness. Justin, a British diplomat, feels guilty of the murder of his wife Tessa, as he thinks her death was due to his bystander attitude that let her do her human-rights activist work by herself. As tragedy presupposes guilt and a sense of responsibility, the hero decides to discover the truth of his wife``s murder; he suspects Tessa was victimized by a conspiracy of the British government and KVH, a multi-national pharmaceutical company. Working like a detective who tries to find the motive of a crime, Justin discovers that KVH has attempted to cover up the controversial use of Dypraxa, a tuberculosis drug with serious side effects, which already killed many African people; he also finds that the British government has helped KVH by ignoring Tessa``s documents condemning the pharmaceutical company that has used African patients as guinea pigs. In the course of his pursuit for concrete evidence of Dypraxa``s side effects, the novel develops a plot of contest. The contest is seen when Justin, assisted by his friends who willingly provide him with information he needs,
Light in August is a tragedy in a tragicomic structure. My main interest here is in Faulkner`s achievement of such a tragicomic mode and the implications suggested by the ironic contrast of tragic and comic actions. In Light in August the comic action develops around Lena Grove presented as a woman eternally chased by a lover in a pastoral world as depicted in Keats` "Ode on a Grecian Urn." Byron Bunch falls in love with Lena at first sight and helps her find the father of the baby she is expecting; yet she ends up travelling with both her baby and Byron, who intends to be a father to the child. Lena`s comic action accounts for the novel`s bookends frame as she enters the tragic scene of Jefferson just as Miss Joanna Burden`s house is being burned and then exits the tragic stage just after Joe Christmas is executed by Percy Grimm whose posse assumed that Joe had raped and killed Miss Burden. The comic plot is, however, subservient to the primary tragic plot centering on Christmas, the central character whose alleged possession of "Negro" blood becomes a tragic inevitability. Christmas seeks racial identity by trying to escape from both his own consciousness and the collective. Miss Burden`s tragic death results from a clash between Christmas` rebellious spirit and her Northern family`s perverse abolitionist heritage, including her father`s Calvinistic beliefs. The tragedy of Gail Hightower, another tragic figure, lies in his obsession with his Southern heritage. This defrocked minister`s blind vision of galloping cavalry portrays his grandfather as a symbol of the heroic, legendary South and Hightower thus resolves to emulate this heroic possibility at the pulpit in Jefferson, the scene of his grandfather`s death. In actuality, he romanticizes the past and evades facing the fact that his grandfather was killed stealing chickens. The subplot of Hightower serves two functions. First, his contact with Byron leads him to his involvement in situations involving Lena and Christmas respectively, thus connecting her comic world with his tragic world. Second, Hightower`s self-scrutiny presents a Southerner`s guilt at the death of Christmas whose tragedy lies in his repudiation of a bifurcated racial view that Southern society has imposed on him. It is tragic that Hightower confronts the real face of the South epitomized by Grimm`s gesture in castrating the alleged black rapist and murderer as well as his own denial of his life-long vision of the heroic, galloping cavalry, which turns out to be nothing but "false optimism and egoism." While Hightower`s tragic vision reinforces Christmas` tragic consciousness, the bookends framing device in the novel produces an ironic contrast between Lena`s comic suspension in the pastoral and Christmas` tragic struggle against his abstract fate. The novel`s tragic poignancy is thus intensified by its comic action.
Paul Auster`s The Locked Room, the third novel of The New York Trilogy, has been examined by many critics in terms of anti-detective fiction or postmodernism. However, this paper focuses upon how the author adopts and utilizes some key elements of the traditional detective novel and its literary tradition. Mystery storytelling is one of Auster`s literary strategies and the theme of the double is another. For his novel Auster explores the theme of the double as in Poe`s "William Wilson." In The Locked Room, the narrator "I" is described as a shadow of his childhood friend Fanshawe. After Fanshawe`s disappearance "I" becomes a literary agent for his friend, and becomes a husband of his friend`s wife and a father of his friend`s child. Searching for information to write a biography of his friend, he realizes that his friend has always been living inside his skull condemned to a mystical solitude. When Fanshawe appears in the narrator`s mind as an image of the door of a locked room, the locked room is also a metaphor for the closed consciousness of the narrator. In his strategy of mystery storytelling, Auster employs the quest of detective fiction as well as the irony of Oedipus the King, where the criminal pursued by the king turns out to be himself. The Locked Room starts with the mystery of Fanshawe`s disappearance, and as the novel develops, the narrator pursues numerous clues about his biographical subject like a private eye. Ironically, however, he finds that the ghost of Fanshawe has always been with him and that this is inevitable. As the narrator resolves to quit his life as a double, he contrives to name a strange man Fanshawe as if he tries to turn his biographical subject into a fictional character in the same way Fanshawe has controlled the narrator like a character in Fanshawe`s novel. Beaten by the fictional Fanshawe and recovering from a near-death experience, the narrator prepares for his final showdown with Fanshawe. The transcendence of his existence as a double is epitomized by his act to tear off the red notebook handed to him by Fanshawe, which confusingly delivers a message that a life is doomed to be a failure. The narrator`s act to cut off Fanshawe`s influence bespeaks his breaking out of his locked consciousness and a new start for his life with his own identity.
In his novel Grendel John Gardner retells the Old English epic Beowulf from the monster`s point of view. Grendel who acts as first-person narrator and protagonist in the novel is, however, intended as a negative example. With this rhetoric strategy readers are allowed to first accept with absurdist Grendel with modern sensibility and then later reject his nihilistic rationalism, acknowledging Beowulf as a genuine hero. Defeating Grendel, Beowulf delivers Blake`s vision that demands to reject the dictates of pure reason and heed the redemptive power of the imagination; the hero promises that the ruined world will be restored as long as the human mind keeps faith in idealistic vision and heroic acts. Like early reviewers of Grendel, however, many readers read the novel in a different spirit, seeing Grendel as a sympathetic character, an absurdist hero. One of the possible answers to different interpretations of Grendel would be that first-person narration is a wonderful device by which to achieve reader identification but unsuitable to establish an ironic perspective on one`s narrator. Another possible answer would be that the most of Gardner`s readers cannot reach a point at which to reject the monster whom they first identified with. In Grendel the monster is portrayed as an alienated being who feels despair and rage when rejected by humans, and who displaces these feelings with violent acts; by contrast, the humans in the novel reveal their hypocritical natures again and again in political maneuvers and personal confrontations, and further darken Grendel`s view of the world. Finally, if readers have sufficient knowledge of the Vietnam and Iraqi wars, they would see Unferth`s persistent act to be willingly killed by the monster as a parody of heroism, one of the traditional values highly praised by the author.
In his novel Catch-22 Joseph Heller experiments with tonal development through elaboration of the repetitive patterns and narrative divisions. As the author points out about a recurring and cyclical structure in the novel, this essay first tries to define repetitive patterns in Catch-22, which are a series of identical scenes such as Snowden`s death and the soldier in white; repetitive patterns also include parallels in situation and motif such as various definitions of "Catch-22" and the officers` leaves in Rome in chapters entitled "Luciana"(16), "Nately`s Whore"(33), and "The Eternal City"(39). As for the cyclical structure, the novel is divided into three parts: chapters 1-16, chapters 17-33, chapters 34-42. Each division starts with chapters 1, 17, 34, in each of which an episode of the soldier in white reappears. The first chapters of the three divisions represent the tones and moods of each division: the comic, serio-comic, and tragic. Heller employs that literary strategy for his novel, for he wanted people to laugh and then look back with horror at what they were laughing at. What readers see is the outcome of the military bureaucracy that enables the villain Milo Mindbinder`s M & M enterprise and his secret ring to consolidate their power and interests, as the military regulation "Catch-22" justifies whatever they want to do because it has no real text or content. The only way Yossarian can break the illogical chain of Catch-22 is to cease to serve the system that perpetuates itself by the non-existent Catch-22 that requires his men to keep flying until their death. Seen in this light, the protagonist Yossarian`s desertion bespeaks his determination to say "no" to the absurd institution; it is his insistence on a moral principle that he has chosen to hold, instead of his physical safety and the honor of being a live war hero. His rowing a small raft with a little oar to go to Sweden is a courageous act to take his new responsibilities for his fellow men`s death and his live fellow men who decide to stay and in the Pianosa air base, debunking the bureaucratic system.