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This study was carried out to investigate the comparison of immunomodualtory effects of water-extracted Aconiti lateralis Preparata Radix(PR), Zingiberis Rhizoma(ZR), Cinnamomi Cortex(CC) and Evodiae Fructus(EF). The parameter examined to assess apparent immunomodulatory effect of the water-extracted PR, ZR, CC and EF included the regulation of Nitric oxide (NO). Also, ZR and EF represent the expression of Th1/Th2 type cytokine, the change of B cell phenotype. The water-extracted PR, ZR, CC and EF inhibited NO production and iNOS protein expression in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. In the Th1 and Th2 cytokine expression, the water-extracted ZR and EF induced IL-2, IFNr and IL-10 mRNA gene expression. Therefore, it seems that the water-extracted ZR and EF have a inducing effect of Th1 and Th2 type cytokines. In the Flow cytometry analysis, the water-extracted ZR and EF changed B cell phenotype (CD45R/B220), did NOT in PR and CC. The water-extracted PR, ZR, CC and EF have a reducing effect of immune suppression cause by Methotrexate (MTX), an agent of immune suppression. These results suggest that the immunomodulatory effects of the water-extracted ZR and EF may be, in part, associated with the inducing IL-2 and IFNr mRNA gene expression In and regulation of NO production in macrophage cells.
The main purpose of this thesis is to examine how Yeats's opinion of the Irish middle class and revolutionists was expressed in his poems. We can realize Yeats's participation in Irish reality and politics, and his limitation as an Anglo-Irish writer by studying the relationship between Yeats's political beliefs and his poetry. Yeats's interest in fascism, his insistence upon the superiority of Anglo-Irish tradition, mode of expression and ambiguity in his literature works, and his exclusive vision of Irish society which denied Catholic Ireland and middle-class, have laid him open to many attacks from the nationalists and the middle class, whose commercialism rejected the noble spirit of national heroes and values of good art. Even today, there are a number of critics and Irish people who have estimated Yeats as a writer who looked away Irish reality and politics. But it seems to me that what we see him as a writer who didn't contribute to the Irish nationalism movement and as a nonpolitical poet is wrong. Though he did not reflect Irish reality and politics in all his works, he incessantly tried to express them and to write Irishness in his work with the subject matter from Ireland under John O'Leary's influence. The course of his artistic life was intertwined with the history of his country. It seems to me that his concern of nation with his political passion continued all his life. He advises Irish Young writers to develop Celtic culture and to have a concern of Irish subject matter in "Under Ben Bulben" regarding as his dying wish's poem. Yeats criticized the commercialism of the middle class and he yearned for Aristocracies who have made beautiful manners in "At Galway Races" and "These Are the Clouds". He expressed his ambivalent opinion of revolutionists in "September 1913". After the Easter Rising caused to change Yeats's thought for the Irish nationalism movement, he simultaneously showed us his criticism and sympathy for Irish revolutionists in "Easter 1916". Also he described his active support for them in "The Rose Tree". Yeats tried to de-Anglicize Ireland by rejecting commercialism and writing about Irish themes in English. But his cultural nationalism largely freed from the real world. And it is true that there are a lot of limitations in that his cultural nationalism was supported from the native Irish in Irish reality and that Yeats was rightly estimated as a great nationalist by his backgrounds-race·religion·culture, support for Ascendancy, attack on the middle class's philistinism, and the ideology of nationalism and Irishness in those days. Neverthless, I think we should revaluate Yeats as an Irish nationalistic writer, because he made a brilliant contribution to having the Irish people take an interest in their present questions and pursue the de-Anglicization detached from commercialism, based on national consciousness.
The main purpose of this thesis is to examine his limitation and attempts to unite disrupt Ireland through cultural nationalism in the later works of W. B. Yeats. This identifies how Yeats attempts to unite disrupt nationality and why his efforts to provide Irish people a vision of an Irish future ultimately failed. It discusses that Yeats attempted to solve the conflict between the real world and the ideal world through the power of art. He, more clearly than any one, realized that there is no nationality without fine literature. He realized there could be no aim for a poet except the expression of a 'Unity of Being,' and the final work of the poet is to achieve it. He thought `Byzantium' stood for the unity of all aspects of life. We can find Yeats's willingness to search for the art world in "Sailing to Byzantium". Yeats emphasizes 'Unity of Being' through the harmonious world that art, religion, and real world can create in "Byzantium". He compares the harmonious world to the image of a chestnut-tree and the dance in "Among School Children." It seems to me that he saw 'Unity of Being' as the condition where the real world and ideal world were harmonized, and realized it could be possible not by the outside power, but by his own inner world, the creative mind. In those days, revolutionists criticized Yeats as a writer who did not contribute to national independence. He did not reject nationality, but he refused to submit to the dictates of ignorance and chauvinistic prejudice. Unity that Yeats hoped for was the harmony of literature, philosophy and politics. He thought that the unification should be achieved not by prejudice, but by vision of variety. Yeats's opinion for unification is reflected in A Vision well. In some respects, it is true that Yeats's political concern reflected in his works has a number of complexities and inconsistencies. Though Yeats tried to de-Anglicize Ireland by rejecting commercialism and writing about Irish themes in English, his cultural nationalism had a lot of limitations in his attempts to free the Irish people from the influence of English culture and to unite a disrupted Ireland. His vision of a future that provides for the unity of disrupt nationality failed due to the political situation of Ireland and his cultural nationalism being freed from the real world. His cultural nationalism was not supported by Irish people, because of his ambiguous poetic style and language, his background-raceㆍreligionㆍculture, occulticism, support for Ascendancy, attack on the middle class's philistinism, and the ideology of nationalism and Irishness in those days. He did not reflect the present politics and economy of Ireland in his writings, being too absorbed in the art world and idealism. Yeats argued that Irish writers should write about Ireland with Irish styleㆍsubject matter, and that he tried to deal with Irish themes based on Irish literature tradition and subject matter in an Irish context. Therefore, it seems to me that Yeats should be valuated as a great writer who incessantly tried to unite the disrupt nationality and to provide Irish people with vision for Ireland through his works because he made a brilliant contribution to a work that makes Irish people have an interest in the pressing problems of Ireland.