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Pyeongsindun (平薪屯) is Gunyoung-Dunto located in Daesan Stock Farm in the former Seosan-gun, Iwon Stock Farm in Taean-gun and Changtaek Stock Farm in Myeongcheon-gun, and was established in 1794 (the 2nd year in the reign of King Jeongjo) after removing such stock farms aiming at steadily securing Jangyongyoung (壯勇營)’s finance, the naval force of Pyeongsinjin (平薪鎭), etc. First of all, Semi (稅米) of Pyeongsindun and Sinmi (身米) of Dunabyeong (屯牙兵) were utilized as Jangyongyoung’s finance, and, in case of 1796, Semi was more than 700 seok (石)and Simmi was 140 seok. Especially, 350 soldiers of Dunabyeong, which belonged to Jangyongyoung’s external barrack, was designed to participate in the defence of Suwon Yusubu. Next, the reason that the stock farm managed by Pyeongsinjin was abolished and Pyeongsindun was established was to effectively secure the naval force by relieving difficulty of shepherds of Pyeongsinjin who also played a role as the naval force. Such a fact is also well revealed in the attempt to prevent officials of the village from disseising the people of the stock farm by separating the family register of the people, who lived in the stock farm before Pyeongsindun was established, from the relevant village and by having it belong to Pyeonsinjin. The structure of Pyeongsindun was well reflected in Chungcheong-do Pyeongsindun Yangan prepared by Kimchwimyeong, Pyeongsinjin Sugun-Cheomjeoljesa (水軍僉節制使) in 1795. The total of Jeolmogwandunsawijingijeondab (折冒官屯寺位陳起田畓) of three stock farms where Pyeongsindun was established was 754 Kyul 10 Bu 7 Sok,that of Gijeondab (起田畓) was 386 Kyul 53 Bu 6 Sok and that of Jinjeondab (陳田畓) was 367 Kyul 57 Bu 1 Sok. Jeol among paddy fields is considered as the name given to Jeolsu and Mo as the name given to Jinjeon (陳田).Hwajeon (火田), etc. discovered during its secretly being cultivated without approval of the nation. So, in case of Jeolsu paddy field, tax as similar as that on Kimkyul 23 du was collected and Mogyeong paddy field, rice 66 du was discriminatively collected. In relation to Pyeongsindun management and involving rent land ownership, discord between Dunmin and the government caused. First, when the government requested people to pay 45 du per Modu 1 Kyul without discriminating Mogyeong from Jeolsu,the people who cultivate Jeolsu paddy field and thus had to pay a more tax expressed their dissatisfaction in 1802 (King Sunjo the 2nd year). Dunmin who cultivated Jeolsu paddy field was dissatisfied with the increased tax maintaining that Jeolsu paddy field was a private paddy field, while the government asserted that Pyeonsindun, regardless of when it was Mokjangdun and Youngdun, was a public paddy field, so the tax of 45du was much lower compared with the time when a stock farm was cultivated. Next,when Najangwon attempted to collect farm rent in 1900 (Gwangmu the 4th year)saying that Pyeongsindun was a public land, and thus people should naturally pay Kyulse to Takjibu and farm rent to Najangwon. Dunmin, maintaining that Pyeongsindun is a private land, so to impose two taxes on one land was wrong,wanted to pay only Kyulse, so that discord between Najangwon and Dunmin occurred. Meanwhile, disputes involving the right to collect tax occurred among Seonhuigung,Jibangdae and Takjibu in 1898. 평신둔은 조선후기 충청도 옛 서산군 대산목장·태안군 이원목장·면천군 창택목장에 위치한 군영둔토로써, 장용영 재정과 평신진 수군을 안정적으로 확보하는 것 등을 목표로 1794년(정조 24) 설치되었다. 먼저 평신둔의 세미와 둔아병의 신미가 장용영 재정으로 활용되었는데, 1796년의 경우 세미는 700여 석이고 신미는 140석이었다. 특히 둔아병 350명은 장용영외영에 소속되어 유사시 수원유수부의 방어에 참여하게 하였다. 다음으로평신진이 관리하던 목장을 폐지하고 평신둔을 설치한 것은, 수군을 겸임한평신진 목자의 어려움을 덜어주면서 수군을 효과적으로 확보하기 위해서였다. 그러한 사실은 평신둔이 설치되기 직전 목장민의 호적을 해당 고을로부터 분리하여 평신진에 소속시킴으로써, 고을의 관리가 목장의 민을 침탈하는 것을 방지하려 한 데에서도 잘 나타난다. 평신둔의 구조는 1795년 평신진 수군첨절제사 김취명이 작성한 『충청도평신둔양안』에 잘 반영되어 있다. 평신둔이 설치된 3목장의 절모관둔사위진기전답의 합계는 754결 10부 7속으로, 기전답은 386결 53부 6속 그리고 진전답은 367결 57부 1속이었다. 전답 중에서 절은 절수를 그리고 모는 국가의 허락이 없이 몰래 진전·화전 등을 경작하다가 발각된 토지에게 붙여진 명칭으로 여겨진다. 때문에 절수답은 민결의 미 23두와 유사하게 미 22두를 징수하였고, 모경답은 미 66두를 징수하는 차등을 보였다. 평신둔 경영과 관련하여 도조·토지소유권 등을 둘러싸고 둔민과 정부의갈등이 야기되었다. 먼저 평신둔이 장용영에 소속된 후 모경과 절수를 구분하지 않고 모두 1결에 45두를 내도록 하자, 세금을 더 내야하는 절수답 경작자들의 불만이 제기되었다. 절수답을 경작하는 둔민은 절수답은 사전이라며세금이 증액된 것에 불만을 표출한 반면, 정부는 평신둔은 목장둔이었을 때와 군영둔일 때를 막론하고 공전이므로 45두의 세는 목장 시절에 비해 크게낮은 것이라고 반박하였다. 다음으로 1900년(광무 4) 내장원이 평신둔은 공토이므로 탁지부에 결세를 그리고 내장원에 도조를 납부하는 것이 마땅하다며 도조를 징수하려 하자, 둔민은 평신둔은 사토이므로 일토양세는 잘못된것이라며 결세만 납부하려 함으로써 내장원과 둔민 사이에 갈등이 발생하였다. 한편 수세권을 둘러싼 다툼이 1898년 선희궁과 지방대 및 탁지부 사이에발생하였다.
『Seon’gi-dae Gun’an』 was created in 1880(17th year of King Gojong’s reign) as a list of soldiers put in Central army service. It is essentially an official material that lets us know the inner structure of the Seon’gi-dae unit. But a comparison made with local army soldier lists, created between the 16th and 19th centuries, also reveals similarities and differences that existed between ‘Central capital soldier lists’ and ‘local region soldier lists’. 『Seon’gi-dae Gun’an』, and local regions’ soldier lists, share some similarities in terms of the documented information. Just like local soldier lists(including lists for the Sog’o-gun: 束伍軍) made in the 16·17·18·19th centuries, and navy lists created in the late 19th century. 『Seon’gi-dae Gun’an』 also documented soldier’s official duties, social status, name, age, county he was associated with, living address, height, and even whether or not he had a mustache and a scar. But it also had additional information, like the Ganji(干支) designation of the year he was born, name of his relatives, Ganji designation of the year and date he was transferred if he was, and the title of his former unit. Also, in 『Seon’gi-dae Gun’an』 statistical information concerning selection/recruitment, age, number of soldiers/function/social status were classified by soldier’s official duties, and current addresses were all inserted as well. From 1874 till 1880, total of 402 soldiers were either selected or recruited. 220 souls were transferred in, while 177 of them were recruited, and 5 others were summoned through various occasions(bokib<卜入>1, gyeomyek<兼役>3, hyansok<還屬>1). The average enlistment age in the Seon’gi-dae unit was 17.4. Among them, 15 year-olds were 111, and formed the largest group in the unit. Major recruiting was implemented when additional units were newly organized, or a large number of soldiers were killed by contagious diseases. In 1880, when this 『Seon’gi-dae Gun’an』 was first created, various ages of individual soldiers ranged between 15 and 59, and with the exception of one individual whose age was never reported, the average age of the whole group was 26.6. Average age of the Commoners were around 23, while ‘Gyeomsabok(兼司僕)’ figures showed 35 and ‘Chulshin(出身)’ figures showed 48. Number of soldiers were classified by soldier’s official duties as followis. 48 of them served as ‘Pyoha-gun(標下軍) soldiers(not counting headquarters’ Seojaji(書字的), Paedu(牌頭) and Bokma-gun(卜馬軍) figures),’ 7 Seojaji figures, 4 Paedu figures, 4 Bogma-gun figures, 3 In’gi-su(認旗手) figures, 3 Gosu(鼓手) figures, 9 Gichong(旗摠) figures, 27 Daechong(隊摠) figures, and 297 Daewon(隊員) figures. Seon’gi-dae(善騎隊) unit was in charge of guarding the king and protecting the palace. The Pyoha-gun soldiers served as assistants to the Byeol-jang(別將) and Seon’gi-jang(善騎將) officers. Seojaji figures were in charge of drafting documents while Bogma-gun soldiers were used in carrying freights. In’gi-su and Gosu figures were in charge of sending signals with flags and drums. Gichong, Paedu and Daechong figures also served as field commanders. The average age of the Bokma-gun soldiers was the lowest(23.3), and that of the Gichong figures were the highest(44). The former’s duties often involved employment of physical strength, so younger soldiers must have been used, while for the latter, which usually served in command, old and experienced personnel would have been undoubtedly favored. Among soldiers, there were 284 commoners, constituting the largest group inside, while 114 soldiers were from the Gyeomsabok category, and 4 from the Chulshin category. According to 『Chong’wiyeong-Sa’rye(總衛營事例)』 and the Hun’ryeon-Dogam(訓鍊都監) regulations, soldiers of Seon’gi-dae received every month “13 Du(斗) of rice and 9 Du of beans” ...
In the study, two different arterial bifurcation model geometries were used in the flow simulation. The model 1 is assumed the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the external carotid artery (ECA) branches of the bifurcation aligned in parallel to each other, while the model 2 is the typical carotid geometry. In the computation the Non-Newtonian behavior of blood was described using Carreau model. Generally, in the comparison between Newtonian and Non-Newtonian results good agreement was observed in the velocity profiles, while some discrepancies were found in the temporal wall shear stress (WSS) distributions as well as pressure profiles due to the shear thinning behavior. The temporal evolution of WSS periodically increases and decreases closely that of the inlet velocity waveform. It was also observed that the reversed flow region in the ICA of model 2 is 2.5 times larger than that of model 1. As a result, the variation of the flow characteristics can be dependent on the geometry as well as the arterial bifurcation geometry plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis.
In the operation of the coal-fired power plant, the friendly-environmental equipment has been increasing attention after stringent environmental regulation by the fully-developed centuries. The particulate occurred in the combustion process of IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) have been gotten rid of by ceranmic candle filter. To increase the performance of the filtering process is of importance to get uniform velocity profile in the can die filter. Thus the objective of this study is to analyze the velocity and pressure distribution in the candle filter and to investigate the effect of the porosity and length of the filter to be affected the flow field. U is assumed that the flow field is axisymmetric and steady-state in the candle filter, k-ε model in the flow field and Darcy's law in the porous region is adapted in the numerical calculation. It is found that the effect of the porosity in the velocity and pressure distribution is negligibly small while the effect of the filter length is significant.
Numerical investigation of the effects of the face velocity on ceramic candle filter was executed in three-dimensional turbulent flow field. It was found that the pressure drop in the filter media depends linearly on the face velocity. It was also found that the radial momentum on the axial length of the filter(x/d≥20) changes with the second order polynomial function.
The objective of this study is to investigate the role of large-scale coherent structures in a spatially developing plane mixing layers. To achieve this, we have to look into the mutual interactions between three-dimensional large-scale coherent structures and the mean flow. Our attention will be focused on the energy exchange mechanism between the various modes, and the effects of the nonlinear evolution of the phases of the interacting modes. Linear stability of the three-dimensional viscous shear layer is formulated and solved as the basis for the solution of the nonlinear formulation based on the energy method. The importance of the initial conditions that may affect the evolution of the flow has been examined. It has been numerically calculated the nonlinear effects arising from the interactions among the three-dimensional large-scale coherent structures in a spatially developing plane mixing layers. The results of this study provide useful parametric information for the control of shear layer in practical applications in the mixing and transport augmentation.
Study the optimum design space of solar power plant, application of efficiency improvement facility using various examples, lack of power cost, lack of land development and difficulty of permission. We analyze economic factors and profitability by deriving analysis factors according to the conditions of construction examples and variables by applying efficient facilities that can utilize idle space of individuals and public more efficiently through various cases 본 논문은 민간 및 공공 소유의 활용 가능한 유휴공간을 더 발굴하고 사례의 다양한 적용을 통해 효율성이 강화된 설비를 적용하여 발전 단가의 지속적인 하락과 육상기반의 지상 발전부지의 부족 및 인허가 애로사항을 효과적으로 대체하는 사례로 연구하고자 한다. 구축 운영 사례를 바탕으로 분석 요인의 도출과 요인별 가변조건에 따라 경제적 가치와 수익성을 시뮬레이션을 하였고 태양광발전소의 수익모델 후속 발굴 연구에 활용될 수 있도록 한다.