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Through reinvestigations of early years of King Young-Joe provincial castles, Jeonju Eupsung, this study seeks to broaden the understanding of castle construction of the later period of Chosun Dynasty. Jeonju Eupsung was established by reform-minded king and his loyalist Cho, Hyun Myung. Their new conceptual framework for reconstruction of Jeonju Eupsung was affected by Yoo, Hyung Won, a realist scholar of 17th century. It is obvious that adopted new administrative systems of financing, building and maintaining of Jeonju Eupsung were based on the his theories of castle.This study demonstrates that Jeonju Eupsung built by Cho, Hyun Myung, during the early years of King Young-Joe were based on those new concepts and systems of the new age. The study shows that the designer of this castle had in mind efficient construction design and execution and effective defense of provincial towns located on flat ground. And, the study explains how those original designer sought higher productivity through greater localization of securing resources and more detailed and improved organization of construction responsibilities. In short, this study seeks to prove that the provincial castles of the early 18th century reflected the new thinking on practicality that was spreading throughout the society of Chosun Dynasty at the time.
This paper attempts to study on the substantial characters of the sangryang-muns written for theconstructions of Sudara-jang and Beopbo-jeon at Haein-sa in the years of king Gwanghae and kingInjo. On that basis, it also attempts to declare the first time that the Buddhist Order firstly usedlong sangryang-mun, and to presume the background of the constructions. The results are asfollows:First, the queen, Mrs. Ryu and court ladies of king Gwanhae had participated as donators to theconstructions. Therefore, it is supposed that the constructions had been promoted by the queen'sBuddhistic beliefs as well as the commemoration of the 6th award of eulogistic posthumous title toking Gwanghae. Second, throughout the history of Korean Buddhism, long sangryang-mun was firstly used in theconstruction of Sudara-jang. Therefore, we can see the fact that long sangryang-mun wasintroduced to the Buddhist Order, as donation by royal families. But the long sangryang-muncouldn't be suitable for the traditional customs of Buddhism, the monks wrote additionally theBalwon-mun, so to speak, the pryer address. Third, the sangryang-mun of Beopbo-jeon was written in the mixed format of long sangryang-munand traditional Balwon-mun. It is supposed that the Buddhist monks wanted to keep the traditionalcustoms. Four, in the late period of Joseon dynasty, the same formats as the sangryang-muns of Sudara-jang and Beopbo-jeon have been widely used in the various Buddhist buildings. Consequently, it issupposed that these three sangryang-muns were the embryonic formats for the major types of thelate Buddhist building sangryang-muns. 본 논문은 광해․인조연간의 해인사 수다라장과 법보전 중수 때의 상량문 3건을 대상으로 불교계가 ‘긴 상량문’을 최초 수용한 시점과 그 배경을 규명하는 한편, 문장구성과 문체형식을 비교, 검토함으로써 이후 불교건축 상량문의 유형적 선구로서 그 위치를 규명하는 데 목적이 있다. 다음은 연구결과를 정리, 요약한 것이다. 첫째, 당시 공사는 광해군 왕비가 독실한 불교신자인 데다 한 해 전 왕의 6번째 존호 수여를 기념하기 위한 것으로 그 배경이 추측된다. 다만 중간에 발생한 인조반정으로 법보전 공사는 늦어지고, 상량문도 직전의 2건과 다른 형식으로 작성되었다. 둘째, 수다라장의 상량문 2건 중 1건은 그간 불교계가 사용한 적 없는 통식적인 ‘긴 상량문’이다. 따라서 임진왜란 직후 왕실 원당사찰의 조영 때 ‘긴 상량문’이 도입되었음을 알 수 있다. 다만 불교계의 관례에 맞지 않았던 탓에 당시까지 사용하던 발원문 형식의 상량문을 별도로 작성하게 된다. 셋째, 법보전 상량문은 수다라장의 2건과 달리 크게 축약한 ‘긴 상량문’에 발원문을 조합한 절충형식의 상량문이다. 이는 ‘긴 상량문’ 도입 초기에 이를 수용하되 발원문과 합쳐서 상량문으로서뿐 아니라 발원문으로 사용하고자 했던 불교계 나름의 해법으로 추측된다. 넷째, 이후 불교건축 조영 때 두 건물의 상량문 3건과 같은 형식이 주로 사용된 점에서 불교건축 상량문의 유형적 선구로서 그 의미가 크다. 특히 ‘긴 상량문’이 일반화됨에 따라 이를 발원문과 조합한 절충형식의 상량문이 주류를 이루었음을 알 수 있다.
This thesis aims to analyze the architectural form for the restoration of noogak(樓閣), Boje-roo(普濟樓) which was constructed at the central court of Beomeo-sa(梵魚寺). The results are as follow; 1. Boje-roo was established in 1700. By the constructional records and poetic essays of the times, the architectural form of the establishment building was consisted of two stories structure. The passage system for the approach to the inner court was the nuha-jinip(樓下進入), that is to say, one might walk between the columns of lower story of the building. And one could ascend the upper stairs and approach to the upper level, inner court. 2. By the remodelling in 1812, the building was varied to one story structure. Therefore the passage system for the approach to the inner court transformed from the nuha-jinip to the ugak-jinip(隅角進入), that is to say, one might ascend the stairs of the podium and could approach the inner court through the both sides of the building. 3. Under the Japanese imperialistic rule, the structure of it's roof and walls of Boje-roo were altered to the Japanese style. In 1965, the wooden columns were shifted to the concreted column, and the wooden wall-panels were shifted to the brick wall attached stone slates. 4. Conclusively speaking, for the restoration of Boje-roo, the establishment form in 1700 is the more proper than the remodelling form in 1812. 범어사 중정 누각인 보제루는 1700년에 창건되었다. 이후 1812년 중창 때 건축형식이 바뀌어졌고, 일제강점기에는 일본식 입면으로 꾸며지기도 했다. 그런데 최근까지 일제강점기에 형성된 바탕 위에서 수리가 이뤄진 탓에 일본식 벽면 구성은 그대로 남아 있다. 여기다가 목조기둥과 판자벽은 콘크리트기둥과 벽돌조적 위 석판 불임으로 개조되고, 우물마루 위에는 다다미까지 설치되었다. 누가 봐도 전통법식이 적지 않게 훼손되었음을 알 수 있는 상태이다. 지금의 보제루는 곳곳이 퇴락해서 누수, 박락이 심하다. 1차적으로는 건물 기능의 유지를 위해서 개․보수가 불가피하다. 나아가서는 일본식으로 변개된 부분을 바로 잡는 한편, 전래의 원형대로 복원하는 문제를 심각하게 검토할 필요가 있다. 보제루의 원형 복원에 초점을 맞출 때 가장 중요한 점은 복원을 위한 기준시점일 것이다. 건물 명칭은 창건 이래 그대로지만 이후에 다시 지을 때 변화가 생겼다면 복원 시점에 따라 건축형식이 달라질 것이기 때문이다.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the activities of Yeongyeok-boojangs, the responsible primary executioners of the palace constructions in the late period of Chosun dynasty. Their main missions were in charge of various executional works by supervising and commanding unexperienced labourers and craftsmen. In spite of their poor treatments compared with those of other engagers, they played vital roles in the constructions. The results are as follow : 1.They led and commanded the working units organized with the thirty or fifty labourers. 2.Long-term military officers were usually picked out as Yeongyeok-boojangs to build palaces and given the position, Byeonjang, as a prize after completing them. 4.The name of Yeongyeok-boojang disappeared in the late of 1800s, and it was replaced by the name of Paejang.
The purpose of this study is to show the constructional activities conducted by the Buddhist craftsmen of Bumeo-sa, especially to focus on the government constructions at Dongrae province in the 1700s. The result is as follows: 1) In the early 1700s, Bumeo-sa developed to become a great Buddhist temple and was be able to possess a large number of workers and craftsmen. On the base of these workforce and skill, the Buddhist craftsmen of Bumeo-sa played the most leading roles for the government constructions until the late of 1700s. 2) Though the conditions of finance and workforce at Dongrae province were not good enough at that time, several huge government constructions could be promoted successively, owing to Bumeo-sa's supports. 3) Above all, the Buddhist craftsmen in Bumeo-sa monopolized the construction of Dongrae Hyangyo in the middle of the 1700s. But the private craftsmen got replaced their main roles in the government and temple constructions since the late of the 1700s.
This paper aims at researching on the substantial characters of the memorial address, namely the mookseo-myeongs(墨書銘), written at the members of the wooden buildings in the late period of Goryeo Dynasty and the early period of JoseonDynasty. In this paper, I pursued to declare the systematic origins by the comparison the Buddhist buildings with the other buildings, on the focused the written patterns. Furthermore, I tried to examine the transitional trends in the late period of Joseon Dynasty. The results are as follow: First, it is supposed that the mookseo-myeongs of the Buddhist buildings were not used for the a memorial address for the ceremony of putting up the ridge beam, so to speak the sangryang-muns(上樑文), but the prayer address(發願文) to memorize the donations of the believers for the constructions. Second, it is supposed that 'the short sangryang-muns' were originated in the mookseo-myeongs of Buddhist buildings and the other ancient prayer address. In the late period of JoseonDynasty, those were established in the formal literary styles. Third, to the early period of JoseonDynasty, 'the long sangryang-muns' were partially used in the several royal palaces. In the late, those were widely used not only in the royal palaces but also in Buddhist buildings, but those literary patterns were rarely changed from the former types.
Jangan-sa is one of the Buddhist temples in the southeastern seaside district, which was restored directly after the termination of Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592. Recently we could find out 4 records on the constructions of Daeoong - jeon in Jangan-sa. These are <Jondori - Mookseo-myeong> written in the 12th year of Emperor Soonchi, <Jondori - Bachim - janghyeo Mookseo - myeong> written in the 8th year of Emperor Geonryung, <Mookseo - myeong> written in 1947 Buddha Era and <Mookseo - myeong> written in 1951 Buddha Era. Until the revelation of these records, the present building has been considered to be built in 1657, the 8th year of King Hyojong, based upon Kim Bang - han's「Jangan - sa Daeoong - jeon - gi」. Because the gongpo of Daeoong - jeon was finished with the type of the late period of Chosun Dynasty, we doubt of the correction on it's building date, just in the year of 1657. Now we are able to examine the building date and the alteration date, based upon the actual measurement and constructional records of Daeoong - jeon. So to speak, the building destroyed in 1592, had been restored in 1658, the 9th year of King Hyojong and was reconstructed in 1744, the 20th year of King Youngjo. Afterward it was repaired on small scales in 1947 and in 1951. Though this building is considered to be lack of the completeness owing to the later alterations, it is still worthy heritage for the research on the building type at the directly after the termination of Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592. 기장 장안사는 임란 직후에 복구된 동남해안지역 사찰 중 하나이다. 최근 필자에 의해서 이 사찰의 대웅전에 관한 4건의 조영기문이 발견되었다. 즉, <順治十三年記 宗道里 墨書銘>(孝宗 8년, 1657), <乾隆八年記 宗道里 받침장혀 墨書銘>(英祖 20년, 1744), <佛紀二九百七十四年三月日記 緣化秩>(1947년), 그리고 <佛紀二九七八年記 緣化秩>(1951년) 등이 그것이다. 이 자료들이 발견되기 전까지 장안사 대웅전은 鰲亭 金邦翰의 「長安寺大雄殿記」에 근거해서 효종 8년(1657)에 건립되었다고 알려져 왔다. 그러나 「장안사대웅전기」는 1660년에 작성된 간접사료이다. 또한 지금 남아 있는 공포의 법식 등이 창건 때보다 이후의 것인 탓에 건립연대에 대한 신빙성이 부족했다. 그러다가 최근 필자 등에 의해서 실측작업이 이뤄지고, 종도리 하단의 묵서명을 비롯한 4건의 문건이 발견됨으로써 건립연대를 정확히 확인할 수 있었다. 즉, 임진왜란 때 소실된 대웅전은 효종 9년(1658)에 복구, 중창되었으며, 이후 英祖 20년(1744)에 중수공사가 있었고, 다시 1947년과 1951년에 각기 소략한 수리 공사가 있었음을 알 수 있었다. 이를 바탕으로 현재의 공포 부분은 1744년에 변개된 것으로 추정된다. 비록 대웅전은 공포 등 일부가 변개되어서 건축적 완결성이 부족하지만 임란 직후의 건축유구로서 건축사적으로 대단히 중요하다고 판단된다.
This is a study on the construction of Buddhist temples in the early period of Chosun dynasty, focused on funds, materials and participants in the establishing construction of Wonkag―sa for a royal family’s shrine. The construction promoted for a government―undertaking project was executed by the Chosung Dogam, which was composed of ministers and royal families. Funds and materials were entirely supplied by the government. The technical builders and labours participated in the construction were the compulsorily laboured soldiers and monks.