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마가가 이렇게 백부장의 외침을 예수의 수난 이야기 중 절정에 위치시킨 것은 무기력하게 핍박을 감내만 하고 있는 마가공동체 멤버들로 하여금, 무기력하게 처형당한 예수의 수난에 좌절하지 않도록 하기 위한 것이다. 백부장처럼 수난 속에 깃든 영광을 포착하라는 것이다. 마가는 수난을 영광을 위한 피할 수 없는 예비단계로 설정함으로써 자신의 공동체 멤버들에게 수난의 현실을 넘어설 수 있는 사상적인 틀을 제공하고 있다. “너희가 내 이름으로 인하여 모든 사람에게 미움을 받을 것이나 나중까지 견디는 자는 구원을 얻으리라.....그 때에 인자가 구름을 타고 큰 권능과 영광으로 오는 것을 사람들이 보리라. 또 그 때에 저가 천사들을 보내어 자기 택하신 자들을 땅 끝으로부터 하늘 끝까지 사방으로 모으리라”(13:13,26-27). 물론 이러한 사상적인 틀은 묵시사상적 연설 속에서만 제공되는 것은 아니다. 마가가 소개하는 “나와 및 복음을 위하여 집이나 형제나 자매나 어미나 아비나 자식이나 전토를 버린 자는 금세에 있어 집과 형제와 자매와 모친과 자식과 전토를 백배나 받되 핍박을 겸하여 받고 내세에 영생을 받지 못할 자가 없다”(10:29-30)는 예수의 가르침도 이러한 사상적인 틀로 이해될 수 있다. 형제와 자매와 모친과 자식을 버린 자가 어떻게 ‘금세에’백배나 받는다는 것인가? 마가공동체 멤버들끼리 서로가 서로를 형제, 자매, 모친, 자식으로 인정함으로써 가능하다는 것이다. 마가는 혈육에 기초한 전통적인 가족관을 뛰어 넘어 믿음에 기초한 하나의 커다란 가정과 같은 공동체를 설정해 줌으로써 ‘금세에’ 이것이 가능한 것으로 설득시키고 있다. 따라서 예수의 모친과 동생들과 누이들이 밖에서 자신을 찾는다는 전갈을 받는 예수는 “둘러앉은 자들을 둘러보며 말하기를 내 모친과 내 동생들을 보라. 누구든지 하나님이 뜻대로 하는 자는 내 형제요, 자매요, 모친이다”(3:31-35)라고 대답한 것으로 보도된다. 그렇다면 전토를 버린 자는 전토를 어떻게 ‘금세에’ 백배나 받는다는 것인가? 이곳저곳 떠돌아다니는 땅 모두를 자신들의 것처럼 간주하게 함으로써 ‘금세에’ 그것이 가능한 것으로 이해시킨다. 이렇게 사상적으로 구성된 세계는 힘겨운 현실 속에서 바로 그 현실을 초월할 수 있는 힘을 제공해 준다. 곧 이 사상적인 세계는 핍박은 점점 더 심해지고 그 핍박으로부터 실제적으로 벗어날 수 있는 길은 아직 찾아내지 못한 막다른 골목에 서 있는 그룹을 위한 하나의 대안이다. 과연 그러한 대안이 적절한 것이냐 하는 질문에 대한 대답은 물론 그 대답자가 속해있는 또는 속하고 싶어 하는 그룹이 설정하고 있는 가치관과 이상이 무엇이냐에 따라 달라진다. 그러나 마가공동체가 처했던 극심한 핍박의 상황과 유사한 상황에 처해진 사람들이 답변에 나선다면, 마가가 제공한 그러한 대안을 ‘불가피한 것’으로 천명하는 대답이 가장 현저한 높이를 차지할 것이다.
The year of 1943 was the decisive year to determine the victor and the loser of the World War Two. In the European war theatre more than 300,000 Nazi soldiers were surrendered to the Red Army of the Soviet Union following a fatal defeat in the battlefield of Stalingrad at the end of January, 1943. Meanwhile, in the Pacific theatre, the Japanese forces were forced to take a general retreat after the defeats in naval and ground encounters of the Guadalcanal campaigns. In the same year the general picture of the war situations in the East and the West was decisively in favor of the Allied forces, pushing the Axis forces into the corner. The favorable war situations made the allied nations to believe that the time had come for them to discuss the post-war settlements and to adjust their respective positions. With this aim, the heads of the victorstates launched a series of direct and personal contacts, which were later described as "Diplomacy by Conferences". Ⅰ. Moscow Four Foreign Ministers' Conference (Oct. 18-30, 1943) : As the prospect of victory of the Allied side was getting brighter, the confliction of interests in the ranks of allied side, which was divided into two, that is, Anglo-American vs. Soviet Union was primarily called to adjust the confliction of interests in the ranks of allied side. The meeting was also served as sort of preparatory meeting for the Three Big Heads Meeting (Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin). After the meeting, the discussion at which were devoted to the post-war peace maintenance system, the four foreign ministers issue statement on the punishments of war criminals and the Declaration of General Security. Ⅱ. Cairo Conference (Nov.22-26, 1943) : The Conference called by the initiative of Presidents Roosevelt of the United States was attended by three big heads of the United State, Great Britain and China : Roosevelt, Churchill and Chiang Kai Shek. Focal point of issue discussed at the conference was post-war settlements with Japan. The conference adopted and issued the Cairo Declaration which spelled out that : Japan should be stripped off all islands on the Pacific Ocean which it had occupied or pirated since 1914 ; all the territories it had pirated from China should be returned to the Republic of China ; Korea should be given independence and the allied side would continue war against Japan until it unconditionally surrender. Ⅲ. Teheran Conference (Nov. 28-Dec. 1, 1943) : This conference was attended by three big heads, Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin, who primarily discussed post-war settlements with Germany and a Roosevelt's plan to establish a world peace organization. that is, the United Nations. At this conference, some of important issues regarding the Far East were also discussed and some decisions were reached. The Big Three agreed and reaffirmed ; a) continued cooperation among three allied nations and determination to continue war efforts; b) guarantee of independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Iran and c) establishment of the secondary frontline (Overload-Secondary Frant). These agreements were summarized in the from the Iran Declaration. At the Teheran Conference, Stalin particularly promised to Roosevelt the participations of the Soviet Union in the Pacific war after the surrender of Nazi Germany, concerted efforts to persuade Turkey to enter the anti-Axis war and support of Tito-led partisans. Along with the Moscow Conference, the Teheran Conference had an important significance in that it provided for post-war channels of approach among the three big allied nations. (the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union.) and that the United States and Great Britain approved the demands by the Soviet Union for the punishment of war criminals and post-war settlements in Europe. Ⅳ. Yalta Conference (Feb. 4-11, 1945) : This conference was the second and the last meeting of the Three Big Heads, Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin, since the Teheran Conference. Two months after the Yalta conference. President Roosevelt of the United States suddenly passed away and Prime Minister Churchill of Britain had to leave, though short period it was, from the active political stage following the defeat of his party in the general elections that took place six months after the Yalta Conference. The sudden death of President Roosevelt and absence of Prime Minister Churchill in the active political stage provided Stalin with golden opportunity to willfully and cunningly exploit the post-war confusion and chaos to expand the territory of the Soviet Union which led to building up the largest empire in the world history. The Yalta Conference was the most important one of innumerable conferences in which the leaders of the allied nations got together during the World War Two. The Conference which was almost exclusively devoted to the discussion of post-war settlements with Germany was unique in that it led to create a new "Balance of power" in the post-war period. Moreover, the conditions for the Russian participation in the Pacific war were also decided at the Yalta Conference. It was the so-called Yalta Agreement which spelled out that in exchange for the participation in the Pacific war two or three months after German is surrender, the Soviet Union was assured with : a) the maintenance of the status quo of Outer Mongolia (Mongolian Peoples Republic) ; b) the retrieval of southern Saghalien and adjacent islands to the Soviet Union; c) acknowledgement of Russia's prevailing interests over the port of Talien, internationalization of Talien and recovery of the Russian lease of the Port Arthur naval base; ed) Sino-Russo joint management of the main railroad in eastern Manchuria and e) concession of the Kuril Islands to the Soviet Union. However, it was decided at the Yalta Conference that any decisions concerning China should be subjected to the approval of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek, which was later translated into an agreement with the Nationalist Chinese government. Besides, the principle of unanimous decision among the big powers was also affirmed at the Yalta Conference. The principle was designed to assure the Soviet Union with right to express its positions, on one hand and to guaranteed both the United States and Great Britain for freedom of actions in the conduct of policies on the other. The experiences of the Legaue of Nations which excluded the Soviet Union made the principle inevitable. As shown in the foregoing, the post-war settlements, reconstructions and the post war peace maintaining system were discussed and decided at various conferences attended by the delegates of the major allied powers. By the time when the inaugural meeting of the United Nations opened at the end of April, 1945 however, the allied nations had already split into two camps of influence, clashing with each other. However, the United States and Great Britain, avoiding direct confrontation with the other side, finally succeeded to make the Soviet Union agree on issuing Potsdam Declaration against Japan in July 26, 1943 after the July meeting in Potsdam, which was attended by Three Bid Heads of the United States, Britain and the Soviet Union. The Potsdam meeting reaffirmed the earlier agreement on the tie schedule of Russia's participation in the Pacific war against Japan. But the confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union continued to grow. Therefore, the United States' dropping atomic bombs on Japan in August, 1945 in the wake of imminent Russia's participation in the Pacific war may well be described as a strategy stemming from the American political design to bring Japan under its knees before the Russian participation gained wider political implications.
Carbon monoxide which is an odorless, colorless, non-irritating gas causes asphyxia by blocking the hemoglobin of the RBC from carrying oxygen to the tissues and from returning carbon dioxide to the lungs. The clinical symptoms of CO poisoning depend on the blood CO saturation level and in a healthy middle-aged individual a blood CO saturation greater than 50% is considered fatal. In forensic science, the investigation of the scene in cases of CO poisoning is imperative to determine the manner of death or the source of CO production, while postmortem diagnosis of CO poisoning is not difficult. The author reported four cases of CO poisoning in the unusual or atypical circumstances, which were no recognized in the scene.
1943 was the year that the victory of the allied forces were almost decisive. The result of the war was so clearly foreseen that allied nations were moving to convent each other to seek the type of Post-War reconstruction of the world. With this purpose, the allied leaders sat on the round-table first in Cairo and success ively in Teheran where they had an important conversation on the destiny of Korea. At Cairo, Korea's independence was garanteed, that is to say, Cairo conference decided only principle for Post-War position of Korea. But at Teheran, U.S.S.R. expressed publically her entry in the war against Japan by pushing Soviet army toward Manchuria, to destroy the story fortress of Japanese Kanton Army. Nevertheless, fully occupied with the battle against Garmany, U.S.S.R. could, by no means, accept this U.S. proposal right away. U.S. were still insisting it even after the historcal bombardment of atomic power over Hirsohima on the 16th Aug. 1945. It proves clearly the Americans overestimated the capacity of Kanton Army. Or at least Americans hoped to diminish the number of American victims by sharing the war energy with Soviet Union. This U.S.-Soviet Combat Union became later direct reason of Korean Peninsula by 38th parallel line. After Teheran, the three heads of State, Rousevelt, Stalin and Churchill met together at Yalta between the 4th and 11th February, 1945. Yalta Conference, the most important one among all other meetings during and after the Second World War, formed a new structure of world balance of powers. It discussed on the Post-War solutions of various German problems as well as the amount and scope of compensation of Soviet participating the battle against Japan. State Department of U.S. at that time proposed for treatment of Korea after the War, the items as follow: (A) Who will participate for military occupation of Korea. (B) Who will take part in International trusteeship for an interim period. For the more, U.S. State Department thought that all the allied nations should send representatives to the military government that would be established in Korea. The U.S. proposal implied U.S.S.R. (only in case that they join the battle against Japan), China, Great Briain and U.S.A. At Potsdam, there held meetings of Presidents and foreign ministers over seven times. Finall, on the 24th July, U.S. Soviet Military Conference was held where they exchanged mutually a series of the very important informations. In this meeting, the problem of demarcation of U.S. controlling zone and Soviet zone within the territory of Korea was discussed to reach principal agreement. And they also agreed each oher to leave the details to be solved dircetly by the field commanding officers of two countries. U.S.S.R. on the other hand, declared the war aganist Japan and entered into military operation on the 9th August in four different areas of Manchuria where Kanton Army and Manchu Army of Japan were incontestably defeated by the Soviet. Gen. Mac Arthur was appointed as the commander if chief of the allied forces under the recognition of the four major powers. At last, Japan accepted an unconditional surrender on the 14th August 1945. By the result of this surrender, General Order No. 1 of the commanding office of allied forces was to assign the Soviet Army to demilitarize Japanese Army above 38th parallel line and the U.S. Army to do the same below the line. It is almost unsuspectable that the demarcation of 38th parallel line was a product of U.S. Army high commanding level of decision-making. Of course, there is no proof yet whether the demarcation was decided in agreement with the U.S.S.R. or not. We know only that the death of president Rousevelt closed a friendly atmosphere between U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. U.S. officials realized now for the first time all kinds of dangers possibly to be occured by the Soviet occupation. Because at Potsdam, Americans made great efforts to prevent the infiltration of communism into the area which is the Soviet zone to demilitarize Japanese Army. It seems to us that Americans considered Japan as the most important object of occupation and South Korea as a buffer state to protect Japan. It is almost evident that their fundamental goal was only to put Korea under the trusteeship of four major powers and make it a buffer-states. It seems also that thus agreed with U.S.S.R.
역자 주: 요즈음 우리는 수소경제라는 단어를 자주 듣는다. 수소경제란 수소가 석탄이나 석유와 같은 화석연료를 대체하여 우리생활의 주 에너지원 역할을 하는 시대를 말한다. 이러한 수소경제를 구현하기 위하여는 경제성 있는 수소생산이 뒷받침 되어야 한다. 지금은 물 전기분해나 천연가스로부터 수소를 얻고 있으나 낮은 효율 때문에 경제성이 없다. 한국을 비롯하여 세계 여러나라기 원자로에서 나오는 고열을 이용하여 수소를 생산하는 기술개발에 박차를 가하고 있다. 이와 관련해서 Nuclear Engineering(2005년 7월)에 게재 되었던 내용을 번역하여 소개한다