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        • 시각단서에 따른 다운증후군 아동의 보행패턴 변화

          변준호,김기홍 용인대학교 2011 특수체육연구 Vol.9 No.-

          The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare the walking patterns of the child with Down syndrome and the children without disabilities and to examine the effects of the visual cues on changes of walking pattern of the child with Down syndrome. The subjects were one child with Down syndrome of Trisomy and five children without disabilities. Before the experiment, seven real-time infrared rays cameras (Vicon I.R., Strobe & Pus, MX13) were established in front, rear, left, right, and diagonal directions. During walking by children, five movements appropriate were chosen for the comparative analysis. To calculate the average and standard deviation of all data, Vicon System’s Polygon was used. The results from this procedure are as follows: First, walking speed per minute of children with Down syndrome was slower than that of the children without disabilities. Second, stride length of child with Down syndrome and stride length of the children without disabilities increased in normal walking and in red lighted condition and decreased in line walking condition. Third, the change of walking speed of the child with Down syndrome showed bigger differences than that of the children without disabilities. Fourth, flexion-extension angle of hip joint of the child with Down syndrome showed similar changes comapring to those of the children without disabilities over the progress of normal, red, and line walking. Fifth, the average of changes in flexion-extension angle of hip joint of the child with Down syndrome showed decrease in angles than those of the children without disabilities in all events over the progress of normal, red, and line walking conditions. Sixth, the average of angle changes in ankle joint of the child with Down syndrome showed decreasing differences comparing that of the children without disabilities over the progress of normal, red, and line walking. In the case of line walking, the closest result to range of motion exercise of the children without disabilities was shown. 본 연구는 시각단서에 따라 다운증후군 아동과 일반아동의 보행패턴을 비교 분석하여 시각단서가 다운증후군 아동 보행 패턴의 변화에 미치는 영향을 알아보는 것이다. 이를 위해 삼염색체 다운증후군을 가지고 있는 아동 1명과 일반 아동 5명을 대상자로 선정하였다. 본 실험에 들어가기 전 운동학적 변인분석을 위하여 전, 후, 좌, 우, 대각선 방향으로 리얼타임 적외선 카메라(Vicon I.R., Strobe & Pus, MX13) 7대를 설치하였다. 실험 실시 전, 연구대상들에게 동작수행에 적합한 타이즈로 환복 하도록 하였으며 익숙하지 않은 환경에 적응하기 위한 적응기를 거친 뒤 전신에 39개의 반사마커를 부착한 후, 전·후 6m의 보행주로를 시각과제 유형에 따라 각각 10회 씩 걷도록 하였다. 시각단서에 따른 다운 증후군 아동과 일반아동들의 보행 중 실험 목적에 적합한 총 5회의 동작을 선별하여 보행 패턴을 비교분석하였으며 이 때, 모든 데이터의 산출 및 평균과 표준편차는 Vicon System의 Polygon을 사용하였다. 이와 같은 절차를 통하여 얻어진 결론은 다음과 같다. 첫째, 다운증후군 아동의 분당 걸음속도는 일반아동의 분당 걸음속도에 비해 느리다. 둘째, 다운증후군 아동의 활보장과 일반아동의 활보장 모두 Normal 보행과 Red 보행 시 커졌다가 Line 보행 시에는 다시 줄어든다. 셋째, 다운증후군 아동의 보행 속도 변화는 일반 아동의 보행속도 변화 보다 차이가 크게 나타난다. 넷째, 다운증후군 아동에 엉덩관절의 굴곡·신전각도는 Normal, Red, Line 으로 진행되어감에 따라 일반 아동집단에 엉덩관절의 굴곡·신전각도 변화와 유사하게 나타난다. 다섯째, 다운증후군 아동의 무릎관절에 굴곡·신전각도 변화의 평균은 Normal, Red, Line 으로 진행되어감에 따라 모든 이벤트에서 일반아동집단과의 각도 차이가 줄어든다. 여섯째, 다운증후군 아동의 발목관절에 각도 변화의 평균은 Normal, Red, Line 으로 진행되어감에 따라 모든 이벤트에서 일반아동집단과의 각도 차이가 줄어들며, Line 보행 시 일반아동집단의 관절가동범위에 가장 가까운 결과가 나타난다.

        • KCI등재

          설암의 술전 조직표본에서 악성도와 혈관내피세포성장인자 발현과의 상관관계

          변준호,박봉욱,정인교,김종렬,김욱규,박봉수,김규천,Byun, June-Ho,Park, Bong-Wook,Chung, In-Kyo,Kim, Jong-Ryoul,Kim, Uk-Kyu,Park, Bong-Soo,Kim, Gyoo-Cheon 대한악안면성형재건외과학회 2005 Maxillofacial Plastic Reconstructive Surgery Vol.27 No.6

          Angiogenesis is important for the growth and metastasis of solid tumors. Some growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, and angiogenin are known to promote tumor angiogenesis. Among them, Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most intriguing factor in regard to tumor angiogenesis. Inhibition of VEGF activity by neutralizing antibodies or by the introduction of dominant negative VEGF receptors into endothelial cells of tumor-associated blood vessels resulted in the inhibition of tumor growth and in tumor regression, indicating that VEGF is a major initiator of tumor angiogenesis. VEGF promotes angiogenesis through their receptors, Flt-1 and Flk-1/KDR. on vascular endothelial cells. These two receptors were usually believed to be expressed specifically on vascular endothelial cell. Several reports have now shown that VEGF is not only significantly associated with microvessel density but also has prognostic value in both node-negative and node-positive oral squamous cell carcinoma. For many years several histologic features of the neoplasms are being considered when assessing the influence of malignancy grading on recurrence and prognosis. Among the characteristics investigated, degree of keratinization, nuclear pleomorphism, mode of invasion, microscopic depth of invasion, intravascular invasion, lymphocyte infiltration, and number of mitoses have been considered as important prognostic factors. So, this study was conducted to evaluate the correlation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression with malignancy in paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens from 11 patients with tongue cancers. Our results showed that high immunoreactivity specimens of VEGF expression were significantly lower keratinization degree and more pronounced nuclear pleomorphism than in low immunoreactivity specimens. Thus, VEGF expression could be used as a prognostic marker in tongue cancer.

        • KCI등재

          성견에서 하악골 신장술 후 하악과두 연골의 조직학적 변화와 Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2)와 Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2)의 발현

          변준호,박봉욱,조영철,성일용,손재희,김종렬,Byun, June-Ho,Park, Bong-Wook,Cho, Yeong-Cheol,Sung, Iel-Yong,Son, Jae-Hee,Kim, Jong-Ryoul 대한악안면성형재건외과학회 2006 Maxillofacial Plastic Reconstructive Surgery Vol.28 No.5

          Purpose : This study was to clarify the changes in mandibular condyle after unilateral mandibular distraction osteogenesis throughout histological changes and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2). Materials & Methods : Intraoral distractors were placed via submandibular incision in 8 dogs. Two unoperated animals served as controls. Distraction was performed five days after osteotomy as a rate of 0.5 mm twice per day for 10 days. Two animals were sacrificed on 7, 14, 28, and 56 days after completion of distraction, respectively. Ipsilateral condyles were harvested and processed for histological and immunohistochemical examinations. Results : The condyle cartilage is separated into four layers: fibrous layer, proliferative layer, hypertrophic layer, and calcified layer. At 7 days and 14 days after distraction, the condylar cartilage showed the decreased thickness of the articular cartilage and reduced cellularity. At 28 days after distraction, there was an increase in cellularity of fibrous, proliferative, and hypertrophic layer. However, it demonstrated reduced cellularity compared to the control. At 56 days of after distraction, the articular cartilage was an almost normal histologic structure. Positive Safranin-O staining, indicative of sulfated proteoglycans, was examined in the condylar cartilge of nonloaded control. At 7 days and 14 days after distraction, the sulfated proteoglycans is almost completely depleted from the noncalcified part of the condylar cartilage. At 28 days after distraction, there was an increase in Safranin-O staining intensity. However, the staining intensity of the experimental condyle was weaker than that of the control. At 56 days of after distraction, the condylar cartilage showed almost normal Safranin-O staining pattern. In control condyle, MMP-2 immunostaining was seen in fibrous, proliferative, and hypertrophic layer of condylar cartilage, however, it demonstrated lack of staining in fibrous and proliferative layer. At 7 days and 14 days after distraction, strong MMP-2 immunoreactivity was seen in the fibrous, proliferative and hypertrophic layer of the condylar cartilage. At 28 days after distraction, MMP-2 immunostaining was seen in the fibrous and hypertrophic layer of condylar cartilage, however, their immunoactivity was reduced. At 56 days after distraction, MMP-2 immunoreactivity showed almost normal immunostaining pattern. In control condyle, TIMP-2 immunostaining was primarily seen in fibrous and hypertrophic layer of condylar cartilage, however, it demonstrated lack of staining in proliferative layer. At 7 days after distraction, very weak TIMP-2 immunoreactivity appeared in fibrous, proliferative and hypertrophic layer of the condylar cartilage. At 14 days after distraction, weak TIMP-2 immunoreactivity was seen in the fibrous, proliferative and hypertrophic layer of the condylar cartilage. At 28 days after distraction, TIMP-2 immunoreactivity was increased in the fibrous and hypertrophic layer of condylar cartilage. At 56 days after completion of distraction, TIMP-2 immunoreactivity showed almost normal immunostaining pattern. Conclusions : The results show that short-term outcome of physiologic distraction osteogenesis may lead to degenerative changes in the condylar cartilage. These alterations in the condylar cartilage may be considered as a pressure-related degeneration of the cartilage tissue. However, the long-term results suggest that the condylar cartilage display repair activity after mandibular distraction osteogenesis.

        • KCI등재

          심하게 흡수된 상악골에서 자가 장골 이식술과 동시에 시행한 임프란트 치료의 안정성에 대한 연구

          변준호,박봉욱,정희찬,김종렬,Byun, June-Ho,Park, Bong-Wook,Jeong, Hee-Chan,Kim, Jong-Ryoul 대한악안면성형재건외과학회 2006 Maxillofacial Plastic Reconstructive Surgery Vol.28 No.6

          A severely atrophic maxilla may disturb the proper implant placement. The various bone graft techniques are required for simultaneous or delayed implantation in the cases of atrophic alveolar ridges. We present 11 consecutive patients treated with simultaneous implantation using the autogenous inlay and/or onlay bone grafts from iliac crest to the floor of the maxillary sinus and the alveolar crest. In the cases of atrophic maxilla, a total 69 implants were simultaneously placed with autogenous iliac bone graft. 40 fixtures were inserted in the sinus floor simultaneously with subantral block bone graft, the other 29 fixtures were placed in the anterior or premolar areas with block or particulate bone graft. The vertical alveolar bone height was measured with Dental CT at the preoperation and 6 months postoperation. Moreover, the implant stability quotients (ISQ) were measured by $Osstell^{TM}$ during second implant surgery at 6 months later of first implantation. All implants were obtained successful osseointegration with the grafted bone. The mean vertical increases were 3.9mm in the anterior ridges and 12.8mm in the posterior ridges. During the second implant surgery, mean ISQ were 62.95 in the anterior ridge and 61.32 in the posterior ridge. We concluded that the simultaneous implantation with autogenous iliac bone graft were stable and available methods for severely atrophic maxilla.

        • KCI등재

          미니돼지에서 자가 피부유래 전구세포와 탈회골 및 피브린 스케폴드를 이용한 하악골 골결손부의 골재생에 대한 연구

          변준호,최문정,최영진,심경목,김욱규,김종렬,박봉욱,Byun, June-Ho,Choi, Mun-Jeong,Choi, Young-Jin,Shim, Kyoung-Mok,Kim, Uk-Kyu,Kim, Jong-Ryoul,Park, Bong-Wook 대한악안면성형재건외과학회 2009 Maxillofacial Plastic Reconstructive Surgery Vol.31 No.3

          Purpose: The aims of this study were to assess the in vitro co-culturing pattern of isolated skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs) with a mixed demineralized bone (DMB) and fibrin glue scaffold and to evaluate in vivo osteogenesis after transplantation of autogenous SKPs with a these mixed scaffold in the animal's mandibular defects. Materials and Methods: We isolated SKPs from the ears of adult 4 miniature pigs. The isolated SKPs were co-cultured with a mixed DMB and fibrin glue scaffold in a non-osteogenic medium for 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Histological characteristics of in vitro co-cultured cells and scaffold were evaluated. $1{\times}10^7\;cells/100\;{\mu}l$ of autogenous porcine SKPs were grafted into the mandibular defects with a DMB and fibrin glue scaffold. In the control sites, only a scaffold was grafted, without SKPs. After two animals each were euthanized at 2 and 4 weeks after grafting, the in vivo osteogenesis was evaluated with histolomorphometric and osteocalcin immunohistochemical studies. Results: Homogeneously shaped skin-derived cells were isolated from porcine ear skin after 3 or 4 weeks of primary culture. In vitro osteogenic differentiation of SKPs was observed after co-culturing with a DMB and fibrin glue scaffold in a non-osteogenic medium. Von Kossa-positive bone minerals were also noted in the co-cultured medium at 4 weeks. As the culture time progressed, the number of observable cells increased. Trabecular new bone formation and osteocalcin expression were more pronounced in the SKP-grafted group compared to the control group. Conclusion: These findings suggest that autogenous SKP grafting with a DMB and fibrin glue scaffold can serve as a useful alternative to bone grafting technique.

        • KCI등재

          양성 및 악성 타액선 근상피종: 증례보고 및 면역조직화학적 연구

          변준호,이종실,김종렬,박봉욱,Byun, June-Ho,Lee, Jong-Sil,Kim, Jong-Ryoul,Park, Bong-Wook 대한악안면성형재건외과학회 2009 Maxillofacial Plastic Reconstructive Surgery Vol.31 No.1

          Benign myoepithelioma (BME) and malignant myoepithelioma (MME) of the salivary gland are very rare and its biologic behavior has not been clarified fully. Although, cases reports for BME and MME were increased in recent, their diagnostic criteria were not completely established. We describe herein a case of BME of the parotid gland and a case of MME of the palatal minor gland, respectively. Histologically, multinodular growth pattern, infiltration to adjacent tissues, and hyalinized and myxoid matrix were observed in MME, that were different histologic features compared with BME. Strong immunoreactivities for the S-100 protein and vimentin were detected in the tumor cells of BME and MME. In specimen of MME, moderately expressed p53 and strongly expressed p63 were detected. However, in specimen of BME, p53 was negatively and p63 was weakly expressed, respectively. In conclusion, the expression patterns of p53 and p63 as well as histologic aggressiveness might be used to diagnose the MME.

        • KCI등재

          Squamous cell carcinoma occurring with aspergillosis in the maxillary sinus: a case report and histological study

          변준호,이정희,노규진,박봉욱,Byun, June-Ho,Lee, Jeong-Hee,Rho, Gyu-Jin,Park, Bong-Wook The Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial S 2010 대한구강악안면외과학회지 Vol.36 No.2

          The coexistence of aspergillosis and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the maxillary sinus was very rare. To our knowledge, this is the second report of coexistent SCC and aspergillosis in the maxillary sinus. A 58-year-old man underwent surgery for unilateral maxillary sinus infection with oroantral fistula. In the surgical specimen, SCC and aspergillosis were co-detected with routine and immunohistochemical stainings. Moreover, human papillomavirus 18 (HPV-18) was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the sinus specimen. The patient was re-operated with subtotal maxillectomy and has been followed up for two years without any evidence of recurrence or metastasis. Although it is not understood how aspergillosis could induce carcinoma formation, the chronic inflammation caused by prolonged fungal infection might be carcinogenic. Moreover, HPV-16 and -18 were another causative pathogens of SCC in the head and neck region. We recommend careful examination, including preoperative cytology, in patients with maxillary sinus fungal infections because of the potential for cancer development.

        • KCI등재

          미니돼지에서 자가 피부유래 간엽성 줄기세포를 이용한 상악동저 거상술

          변준호,강은주,맹근호,노규진,강동호,이종실,박봉욱 대한구강악안면외과학회 2010 대한구강악안면외과학회지 Vol.36 No.2

          Introduction: In our previous studies, we isolated porcine skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells (pSDMSCs) from the ears of adult miniature pigs and evaluated the pluripotency of these pSDMSCs based on expressions of transcription factors, such as Oct-4, Sox-2, and Nanog. Moreover, the characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells was revealed by the expression of various mesenchymal stem cell markers, including CD29, CD44, CD90, and vimentin. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo osteogenesis after maxillary sinus lift procedures with autogenous pSDMSCs and scaffold. Materials and Methods: The autogenous pSDMSCs were isolated from the 4 miniature pigs, and cultured to 3rd passage with same methods of our previous studies. After cell membranes were labeled using a PKH26, 1×107 cells/100 μL of autogenous pSDMSCs were grafted into the maxillary sinus with a demineralized bone matrix (DBM) and fibrin glue scaffold. In the contralateral control side, only a scaffold was grafted, without SDMSCs. After two animals each were euthanized at 2 and 4 weeks after grafting, the in vivo osteogenesis was evaluated with histolomorphometric and osteocalcin immunohistochemical studies. Results: In vivo PKH26 expression was detected in all specimens at 2 and 4 weeks after grafting. Trabecular bone formation and osteocalcin expression were more pronounced around the grafted materials in the autogenous pSDMSCs-grafted group compared to the control group. Newly generated bone was observed growing from the periphery to the center of the grafted material. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that autogenous skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells grafting with a DBM and fibrin glue scaffold can be a predictable method in the maxillary sinus floor elevation technique for implant surgery.

        • KCI등재

          Effect of porous polycaprolactone beads on bone regeneration: preliminary in vitro and in vivo studies

          변준호,Han A Reum Lee,Tae Ho Kim,이진호,오세행 한국생체재료학회 2015 생체재료학회지 Vol.19 No.1

          Background: For the effective bone regeneration with appropriate pathological/physiological properties, a variety of bone fillers have been adapted as a therapeutic treatment. However, the development of ideal bone fillers is still remained as a big challenge in clinical practice. The main aims of this study are i) fabrication of a highly porous PCL beads; and ii) the estimation of the potential use of the porous PCL beads as a bone filler through preliminary animal study. Results: The porous PCL beads with size range of 53 ~ 600 μm (425 ~ 500 μm dominantly) are fabricated by a spray/precipitation method using a double nozzle spray and PCL solution (in tetraglycol). The PCL beads show highly porous inner pore structure and the pores are interconnected with outer surface pores. For the preliminary animal study, we recognize that the porous PCL bead can induce the new bone formation from the outer surface of bone defect toward the bone marrow cavity through the bead matrix. Conclusions: From the preliminary results, we can suggest that the highly porous PCL beads may be a promising candidate as a bone filler (scaffolding matrix) for the effective bone regeneration.

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