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Despite its historical importance, relatively little attention has been paid to the theory of vital force that nineteenth century health reformers put forward. Allegedly, the vital force is a life-sustaining energy peculiar to living organisms, including human beings, and different from all the other forces found outside in non-living creatures. In this vein, this article examines ideas of vital force that Ellen G. White, one of the co-founders of the Seventh-day Adventists, maintained in her series of books called The Spirit of Prophecy. Also, this article shows the historical context of contemporary vitalism that presumably induced her to discourage masturbation (self-abuse or solitary vice as she called it) because ostensibly vital force could be expended by reckless ejaculation. She believed that devout Christians’ aim to maintain a holy body would be seriously thwarted by arbitrary semen leakage. For the purpose of comparative explanation, the article compares White’s ideas with those of Daoists. According to the Daoist Ge Hong (葛洪), an ancient Chinese thinker from the Wei-Jin period, in his book “Neipian” of Baopuzi (抱朴子), anyone can become an immortal Daoist hermit (神仙) by means of ancient chinese sexual arts (房中術) by which one should refrain from wastefully expending his semen (jing 精). Finally, this article discusses the relationship between semen loss and brain damage in the context of White’s masturbation taboo as well as Daoist semen-keeping arts called haijingbunao (還精補腦).
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미국 소설가 스티븐 킹의 소설 『리타 헤이워드와 쇼생크 탈출』을 원작으로 한 전 세계적으로 유명한 영화 <쇼생크 탈출>은 일부 영화 비평가와 신학자들에 의해 그리스도교 영화로 해석되고 여겨져 왔다. 본고는 이 영화에서 두드러진 그리스도교적 모티프와 주인공인 앤디의 그리스도 같은 이미지들을 탐구한다. 첫 부분은 그리스도교인과 비그리스도교인, 포로와 자유자, 또는 피시(fish, 억압 된 죄수)와 버드(bird, 자유인)의 이분법이 갖는 역설적인 대조를 다루고 있다. 이 교차점에서 본고는 크리스토퍼 디시의 실재주의를 돈 큐핏의 비실재주의와 비교한다. 두 번째 부분은 피시에서 버드로 존재론적 전환을 다루고 있으며, 전통적인 교회신학에서 이른바 왕국신학으로의 고의적인 전복을 보여준다. 마지막으로 세 번째 부분은 영화에서 등장하는 미국-멕시코 간 국경의 독특한 상징성과 그 함축적 의미를 다룬다. 결국 이 논문은 영화 <쇼생크 탈출>이 디시의 관점과 다른 방식으로 전형적인 신학적 영화라는 결론을 내리고 있다. Worldwide famous movie The Shawshank Redemption, directed by Frank Darabont, based on American novelist Stephen King s Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption, has long been interpreted and regarded as a Christian film by some movie critics and theology students. This article explores salient Christian motives in this movie and its protagonist Andy s Christ-like images. The first part of this article deals with the paradoxical contrast of dichotomy between Christian and non-Christian, prisoner and freeman, or fish and bird. In this intersection, this article compares Christopher Deacy’s realism with Don Cupitt’s non-realism. The second part deals with ontological transition from fish (oppressed prisoner) to bird (freeman) and shows a kind of arbitrary turnover from traditional ecclesiasitcal theology to so-called kingdom theology. Last but not least, the third part deals with unique symbolism of US-Mexico border shown in the movie and its implicit meanings. At last, this article concludes that the movie The Shawshank Redemption is a typical theological film in the way other than Deacy s viewpoint.
The Purposes of this thesis are two kinds: One is to analyze the dynamic application and performance of death-regeneration ritual in our highly divided society today; the other is to explore the process of making some meanings in the ritual process. To meet this question, two different, but interrelated tasks should be done: Firstly, a couple of adventist doctrines, that is to say, their teaching about human body and death problem, have to be studied roughly, and then through an academic approach to ritual problem, the historical and theoretical arrangement of ritual theories has to be epitomized. And lastly, the practical adventist healthcare program, so-called New Start program, has to be compared with 'Isoma' ritual in Ndembu tribe. From sabbath day to Sabbath ritual, some divergent meanings Sabbath implies are expanded, and adventists put Sabbath ritual into the center of their worship ceremony and utilize it as means of mission work. In that ritualizing process, Jesus is described as a good doctor, church as a great hospital, Holy Spirit as a divine power to cure the invalid, especially in Sabbath. They regard physical bodies as religious bodies, cells in human body as the sanctuary God dwells, their mind as a sort of vessel Holy Spirit flows into, and they teach and practice these interpretation dynamically with Sabbath ritual. Especially, 'separation- transition-reincorporation' triad structure theory, as A. van Gennep said, is adapted in this thesis to interpret adventist Sabbath ritual, and this work meets the case with main theme of this thesis. For the purpose of this work, by means of Listenwissenschaft, as Jonathan Z. Smith put it, such a new understanding of Sabbath ritual is compared with many a religious heritage in world history. In other words, adventist Sabbath ritual is not a isolated and rare case, but a normal case in the forest of abundant data dug out in religious studies. Many different religious currents, such as New Age movement, holistic healing, and unorthodox medicine, are compared with New Start program. Also in this thesis, Sabbath ritual in adventists is compared with Isoma, a therapeutic ritual in Ndembu tribe, in Africa. Through scrutinizing ritual process of Isoma, death-regeneration motif in Sabbath ritual Korean adventists practice is more easily understood. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that adventist church offers cure and unity of community and mission work through their Sabbath ritual, just as Ndembu aborigines cure and bind their members in one with their Isoma ritual. In conclusion, adventists take advantage of Sabbath ritual as a symbolic channel of death-regeneration. This results from interpreting Jesus' death motif and burial motif of baptism as fulfilling Sabbath. In this process, Sabbath becomes a tunnel from death to resurrection and helps create dynamic religious symbols and emblems in their worship ceremony. Of course these symbols range from pastor's sermon to various religious ornaments in their church-pictures, musical instruments, and tools. In Sabbath ritual, Jesus' death in Passover means a separation phase, and his burial and underground rest in Sabbath day means a transition phase, and then his resurrection in Sunday morning means a re-incorporation phase. These scheme reminds us of Gennep's initiation story and Turner's communitas state. In sum, Sabbath ritual seems to be a praxis that embodies adventist teachings about death, in which they think of death as a sleep, resurrection as awakening from the sleep, and practices their teachings about human body, in which they look upon human's spirit and flesh as one unity and understand that spiritual healing brings about physical healing. This praxis is, as stated early, a body schema, in Douglas' term, which affects adventists' life styles and thoughts. And this body schema is their ritualized body and creative bricolage today.