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A teaching hospital is a place where both patient care and learning occur together. To identify the role of the teaching hospital in an effective clerkship, we first determined the features of workplace learning and the factors that affect learning in the workplace, and then we proposed a role for the teaching hospital in the clinical clerkship. Features of learning in a clerkship include learning in context, and learning from patients, supervising doctors, others in the team, and colleagues. During the clerkship, medical students learn in three-way learner-patient-teacher relationships, and students' participation in the tasks of patient care is crucial for learning. Factors that influence learning in the workplace are associated with tasks, context, and learner. Tying the three factors together, we proposed a role for the teaching hospital in the three categories: involvement in the tasks of patient care, engagement in the medical team, and engagement in the learning environment and system. Supervising doctors and team members in a teaching hospital support students' deep participation in patient care, while improving the learning environment through organizational guidelines and systems. Gathering both qualitative and quantitative data for the evaluation of a teaching hospital is important.
Trichostatin A (TSA) shows a promising therapeutic effect on cancer cells when combined with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. However, so far, little has been reported on the combined treatment with TSA and hyperthermia (heat shock: HS). Here, we examined the effect of TSA/HS on human astrocytoma A172 cells and found that TSA/HS cotreatment effectively induced apoptotic cell death. The molecular mechanism of this effect consists of reduction in the levels of antiapoptotic factors (Bcl-2 and XIAP), Hsp27, and phosphorylated STAT3 (Tyr705), a transcription factor required for survival of A172 cells. Reduction of STAT3 activity resulted in the down-regulation of its taget genes, Bcl-xL and VEGF. In contrast, the level of p53 tumor suppressor was increased by TSA/HS. Therefore, our results show that co-treatment of TSA and HS play a role as an effective inducer of apoptosis in STAT3- dependent tumor cells such as A172 cells. (Cancer Prev Res 11, 205-210, 2006)
Choleystokinin(CCK)is a gastrin-like peptide present in the central nervous system, and its location and concentrations have been examined. CCK immunoreactive neurons are widely distributed throughout the rat central nervous system. In the present study, neurons expressing the CCK geene in developing rats were examined with in situ hybridization histochemistry. 15㎛ thick fresh frozen sections were hybridized with ^35S-labled antisense oligonucleotide to CCK mRNA, and then processes for antoradiography. CCk mRNA appeared at birth in various brain regions, including the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, amygdaloid nuclei, pontine reticular formation, raphe nuclei and lateral parabrachial nucleus. Particularly dense signals were present at birth and in adult rats. Within the cortex and the hippocampus, the signals for CCk mRNA increased with development. Regional differences in the pattern of CCK expression are likely to be related to the development of particular brain functions.
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Purpose: The lecture is a technique for delivering knowledge and information cost-effectively to large medical classes in medical education. The aim of this study was to analyze teaching quality, based on triangle analysis of video recordings of medical lectures, to strengthen teaching competency in medical school. Methods: The subjects of this study were 13 medical professors who taught 1st- and 2nd-year medical students and agreed to a triangle analysis of video recordings of their lectures. We first performed triangle analysis, which consisted of a professional analysis of video recordings, self-assessment by teaching professors, and feedback from students, and the data were crosschecked by five school consultants for reliability and consistency. Results: Most of the distress that teachers experienced during the lecture occurred in uniform teaching environments, such as larger lecture classes. Larger lectures that primarily used PowerPoint as a medium to deliver information effected poor interaction with students. Other distressing factors in the lecture were personal characteristics and lack of strategic faculty development. Conclusion: Triangle analysis of video recordings of medical lectures gives teachers an opportunity and motive to improve teaching quality. Faculty development and various improvement strategies, based on this analysis, are expected to help teachers succeed as effective, efficient, and attractive lecturers while improving the quality of larger lecture classes.