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          논문 : 명,청대 덕화요 송자관음상 고찰

          방병선 ( Byung Sun Bang ) 한국불교미술사학회(한국미술사연구소) 2011 강좌미술사 Vol.37 No.-

          본 논문은 명·청대 덕화요에서 제작된 송자관음상의 제작배경과 양식 분석을 통해 도상의 원류를 파악하는 것을 목적으로 하였다. 송자관음상은 관음상의 일종으로 명대부터 덕화요에서 제작되었다. 송자관음상의 도상에 대해서는 인도의 Hariti, 중국 전통의 백의관음이나 귀자모 신앙에서 비롯되었을 것이라는 견해와 명대 중국에 들어 온 예수회 선교사들이 마리아상의 도상과 유사하게 제작 의뢰를 했기 때문일 것이라는 견해가 있다. 이를 고찰하기 위해 먼저 송자관음상의 제작배경을 종교와 제작기술로 나누어 살펴보았다. 다음 현존하는 송자관음상의 형식을 분석하고 얼굴 표현을 당대 화가들의 그림과 비교하였다. 이를 토대로 덕화요 송자관음상의 양식을 3가지로 분석하였다. 첫 번째 양식은 덕화요 고유의 백의관음상 도상에 동자를 안고 있는 비교적 단순한 것으로 중국적 도상에서 기원한 것으로 추정하였다. 두 번째는 암반 의자 대좌에 다양한 지물과 장식이 추가된 것으로 서양의 마리아 도상과 유사한 부분이 있음을 파악하였다. 끝으로 실제 마리아상에 가까운 서양인의 모습을 한 세 번째 양식의 송자관음상은 괴물 대좌 위 입상이 주를 이루는 것으로 서양인들의 주문에 의해 18, 19세기에 주로 제작되어 유럽으로 수출된 것으로 보았다. 결론적으로 덕화요 송자관음상 도상의 원류는 중국의 백의관음상에서 기원하였고 이후 몇 가지의 변형이 가해져 유럽으로 수출된 것으로 파악하였다. This paper aims to explore the Dehua Songzhi Guanyin in the Ming and Ching Dynasty. Songzhi Guanyin is a so called child~giving Guanyin that was made in porcelain during the Ming and Ching dynasty from the 17th century in Dehua, Fujian. There are two presentations about the origin of icon of Dehua Songzhi Guanyin holding a baby in her arms. The one is maria origin. Because some missionaries and foreign visitors thought the Songzhi Guanyin of the Goddess of Mercy, Madonna, they asked the Dehua potters to make Songzhi Guanyin to use iconographic subjects of Madonna and sent them to European consumers. The other idea is that Indian Hariti, Chinese traditional White~robed Guanyin and the cult of Mother Yacha might have influenced the icon of Songzhi Guanyin. So the icon of Dehua Songzhi Guanyin is assumed to originate from Chinese traditional icon. To discuss that topic, I surveyed the religious texts about the origin of Songzhi Guanyin and technological backgrounds of Songzhi Guanyin production in Dehua, Fujian. And I analyzed the types and compared the facial expression of Songzhi Guanyin with contemporary paintings. I also attempted the style analysis and divided into three groups. The first style is thought to originate from the Chinese traditional white~robed Guanyin holding a baby with a hood on the rock pedestal. And the second is a decorative style. A Songzhi Guanyin with a baby holding the objects is seated on the rock chair with attendants holding some objects. The dragon and lotus were applied to the pedestal to decorate. Most of the Songzhi Guanyin in european museum could belong to the 2nd style. The third style is very similar to the style of Madonna with a child. The Songzhi Guanyin looks like Madonna standing on the head of monster pedestal. They were made by order from Europe during the 18th and the 19th century. Finally I concluded that the iconographic representation of Songzhi Guanyin originated from Chinese white~robed Guanyin. And after some variants attempted by Dehua potters, they were exported to Europe. Also Madonna style was made by order from Europe and exported to europe during the Ching dynasty.

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          1870년대 이후 조일(朝日) 요업 근대화 비교 고찰

          방병선 ( Bang Byungsun ) 한국불교미술사학회 2021 강좌미술사 Vol.57 No.-

          본 논문은 1870년대 이후 조선과 일본의 요업 근대화 과정을 분원과 아리타를 중심으로 비교, 고찰하여 조선의 요업 근대화 문제를 파악하는 데 목적을 두었다. 먼저 일본은 개항과 통상조약의 체결, 유럽내 자포니즘의 유행으로 국내외 도자 수요층이 확산되었다. 1870년 폐번치현 이후 번요가 폐지되면서, 새로운 민요가 등장하여 발전하게 되었다. 일본 정부는 해외 만국박람회 참가를 계기로 도자산업 육성을 목표로 직수출 정책을 펼치는 한편, 『온지도록』같은 공예 디자인 도록을 발간, 배포하고 민간 수출 가마에 도안 지도를 하였다. 또한 생산 주체로 상인들이 등장하여 근대적 회사조직을 설립하거나 관과 공동으로 무역회사를 창립하였다. 관민 협동으로 유럽산 선진 요업 기계와 기술을 수입하고, 외국인 고용을 통한 기술 지도로 요업근대화에 박차를 가하였다. 여기에 요업 관련 은행과 공예전문학교가 아리타에 설립되어 정부와 민간의 협업에 정점을 찍었다. 다음 조선 역시 개항과 통상조약체결, 만국박람회 참가 등을 시도했으나 도자 생산과 기술개발에는 별반 영향이 없었다. 다만 누적된 폐단을 시정코자 상인들의 왕실용 자기 생산 참여를 허용하여 1883년 사옹원 분원을 상인물주와 일부 변수가 운영하는 분원공소로 민영화하였다. 일본과 같은 선진 요업 기계와 기술 도입, 요업 금융기관 설립 같은 요업근대화 작업은 이루어지지 못하였다. 다만 1900년대 이후 일본 주도의 관립 공업시험소가 설립되어 요업기술 인력 양성이 일부 시도되었다. 결국 1870년대 이후 조선과 일본의 관요 민영화와 근대화 과정은 도자를 산업화하여 부국강병의 근본으로 삼을 것인가라는 인식과 국가와 민간의 협력 여부에 따라 결정되었음을 본 논문은 확인하였다. This paper examines the official kiln’s privatization and modernization of the ceramic industry of Korea and Japan since the 1870s. By comparing the ceramic production affairs of Korea Bunwon with Japan Arita, this paper addresses the background, the process of modernization, and the reason why Korea could not modernize the ceramic industry successfully like Japan. Through the opening port and popularity of Japonism in Europe, Japan expanded the ceramic market and abolished the Han(藩) official kiln by the act of “Haihanchiken(廢藩治縣)” as private kilns advanced. After employing the foreign specialist who guided advanced ceramic technology and participated on several international expositions, the government made a direct trade policy, published the design catalogue of crafts, and established the private-public mix trading company. In addition, the merchants launched their own modern ceramic company. Through the cooperation of the government and the civil, advanced European techniques and pottery machines were imported from Europe to establish the financial banks and ceramic schools in Arita. The Korean government demonstrated few implementations such as opening port and commercial treaty. However Korea could neither export ceramics to the foreign countries nor expand production of ceramics. In 1900, Korea was invited to participate at the Paris international exposition to improve the production technique but failed to exploit that chance. Some merchants and potters joined to manage the public-private Bunwon ceramic company but it closed before long. There were neither import of the European advanced ceramic machine nor establishment of the ceramic bank and ceramic education school. Only the engineering lab center was established by Japan during the 1900’s to educate the ceramic technicians. Finally, this paper offers the modernization of ceramic industry of Korea and Japan since the 1870’s was dependent on the awareness of industrialization of ceramic production and the policy intention of government.

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          楚亭 朴齊家ㆍ綸菴 李喜經의 도자 인식

          方炳善(Bang Byung-sun) 한국미술사학회 2003 美術史學硏究 Vol.- No.237·238

          Park Jae-ka (朴齊家, 1750-1805) and Lee Hee-kyung (李喜經, 1745-1805?) were the scholars of Northern Learning School. They proposed to enrich the nation and to secure the livelihood of people through the development of commerce and industry. They had the same thoughts on Chosun vessels. Through the journey to China, they witnessed the wide expansion of Chinese ceramic use and technical development of ceramic manufacturing. And they acknowledged the superiority of Japanese to Chosun in technology and manufacturing system. Comparing the technique of Chosun with the one of China and Japan, they pointed out problems of Chosun ceramic manufacturing technique and criticized the kiln operating system. They proposed an introduction of Chinese and Japanese techniques and technological policies. To have a correct point of view on their proposals and severe criticisms, we have to consider some matters. First, they neither spoke for all of the Chosun consumers nor fairly represented the style and technique of Chosun porcelain. It is because not only the self-examination which resulted from the study of Chosun porcelain, but also their preference for the foreign ceramics, provided the momentum of the proposals and criticism. Second, their technical records of Chosun porcelain were not free from mistakes because they didn't participate in making ceramics. We have to take into consideration what they pointed out; whether Chosun white clay, which is inferior to Chinese and Japanese clay on the whiteness and high fire resistance, is suitable to make ceramics similar to Chinese or Japanese ones: whether over-glaze decoration of porcelain was to our taste and Chinese style kiln was suitable to fire Chosun porcelain. Next, they hardly paid attention to the aesthetics and styles of the Chosun porcelain. Generally speaking, how to view the vessels can be changeable depending on the viewers and times. But not only technique but also style have to be considered to appreciate the ceramics simultaneously. Even though the manufacturing technique of ceramics was underdeveloped, we could not underestimate themselves. In spite of previous stated problems, their records have an art historical significance. Through them, we learned views of the Northern Learning School scholars on the contemporary Chosun, Chinese and Japanese ceramics and the technical problems of Chosun ceramics.

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          조선 후기 사기장인 연구

          방병선(Bang Byung-sun) 한국미술사학회 2004 美術史學硏究 Vol.- No.241

          Without a doubt, the white porcelain of the Chosun period has long been viewed as one of the best representative art forms in terms of beauty and aesthetics of the Chosun literati. We feel the dignified beauty of that artistic era that the Chosun literati pursued through its characteristic shape and simple design. This style of porcelain was produced by an official handcraft system throughout the entire Chosun dynasty. It began when an official kiln was established in Sawongwon (ie, "Palace Kitchen Management") during the 1460's. The production of ceramics was then supervised till 1884 by the royals who regarded the white porcelain as precious and important. Selected from around the country, 380 public potters were charged with the production of royal ceramics in the official kilin. They made the official royal vessels, while other unselected potters made a living by crafting private wares in each hometown and paying cloth taxes as duties. Both artisan classes, royal and common, had to perform their duties as craftsmen for generations. They could not change their jobs legally. Public potters were divided into several ranks according to their abilities and characteristics. The headmaster, called Pyunsoo (邊首). was selected from the potters to supervise the production and supply of the royal vessels. But, by the end of the 19th century, some merchants became Pyunsoo. As a result, the Pyunsoo and potters made not only royal wares but also commercial ones. Unfortunately, there are scarce records about these individuals except for the name of some Pyunsoo from the late 19th century. Chosun potters who were low in social rank could not leave their names like a Japanese craftsman neither do business well like a Chinese potter. Summoned by the country, they did their best yet suffered from severe hardships. They did their best when firing only one humble bowl on an unknown mountainside. They also tried to make simple and noble vessels exhibiting the spirit of royals and literatie. For them, it was more valuable and important than making just commercial skilled wares. The details which were surveyed could be chronologically summarized as follows: In the 17th century, the reform of the official kilns was accomplished in spite of successive invasions by Japan and Manchuria. Exclusive employment of potters and the permission of private firing of Punwon potters was executed. Potters overcame economic hardships owing to the patronage of royals and officers who encouraged and took care of them. After the 18th century, commercial and decorative vessels became popular. Potters endeavored to improve their techniques for profitable manufacturing. Influenced by an economic boom, pottery shops also appeared. In addition, painting potters began to work at official kilns owing to the flourish of blue-and-white porcelain. In the latter half of the 18th century, private firing increased as the consumers ceramics market expanded. But these expansions in private firing did not lead to an increase in potter' income. On the contrary, an increase in the amount of work painfully burdened them more so than before. In 19th century, the operation of Punwon became more difficult due to greater orders of extra fired ceramics and the wide-spread presence of intermediary exploitation. The financial troubles of the government made the financing of the Punwon difficult as time went by. Eventually, Punwon became privatized in 1884. Sawongwon entrusted 12 dealers with the right of conducting tributes. So, the official handcraft system was finally changed to a civilian one.

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          17-18세기 동아시아 도자교류사 연구

          방병선(Bang Byung-sun) 한국미술사학회 2001 美術史學硏究 Vol.- No.232

          The mutual interactions in East Asia during the 17th-18th centuries has an important art historical significance in Chos?n ceramics. Firstly. there is little evidence, except for a wide foot rim. that can prove the mutual interactions between Chos?n and China ceramics during the 17th century, because Chos?n was reluctant to receive the Chinese style and technique. due to the hostility of Chos?n to the Qing China after the war. In the 18th century newly changed situation made the influx of Chinese styles prominent in Chos?n. Chos?n scholars who emerged the major consumers of Chos?n porcelain began to recognize Qing culture and import the Chinese ceramic style. The use of the cartoon in painting themes and motifs, the appearance of landscape motifs. popularity of auspicious and flower-insects motifs, angular shape and Chinese-style decoration are good examples. But Chos?n did not simply borrow the decoration type from China. The theme and representation were changed to satisfy the Chos?n consumers' taste. The popularity of the "Eight scenes of the Xiao and Xiang Rivers 瀟湘八景," Chos?n-style flower motifs, designs with wide space, simple decoration, and peculiar official kiln system were the characteristic Chos?n-style different from the Chinese style. Secondly, even though there were material and personal exchanges in ceramics, the exchange was solely one-sided from the Chos?n to Japan. Despite the invasion of Japan in 1592-1597, Chos?n showed kindness to .Iapan: Chos?n made tea bowls specially ordered from Japan in Woegwan 倭館 (special place for trade with Japan) from 1649 to 1710. For Chos?n it was a difficult and even burdensome job to make ceramic ware for the export to Japan because this required skillful potters and clay. In the 18th century. Japanese began to order Japanese-style ceramics. However the situation gradually changed. Chos?n potters kidnapped during the Japanese invasion taught the technique to .Japanese, and they made the first porcelain in Japanese ceramic history. In the middle of the 17th century Japanese began to export ceramics to Europe and received the Chinese style and technique actively. Thus in the 18th century Japan did not import Chos?n-style ceramics any more. On the contrary a group of Chos?n scholars called Pukhakp'a 北學派 which insisted on the urgent import of Qing culture and demanded the change of the ideas and systems of commerce. envied the Japanese respect toward ceramic skill. Thirdly, Chos?n did not import the advanced Chinese production technique, while Japan tried to adopt various technique from Chos?n and China. The imported technique had become fundamental basis for Japanese porcelain technique. They also took the overglaze decoration from China and developed their own production technique. For Japan the export of ceramics to Europe and other Asian countries stimulated its production further. They could surpass the Chos?n in production technique. As for Chos?n there is no evidence that they produced over-glaze ceramics and improve their kiln system. Finally. we have to note that the cultural golden age of the East Asia during the 17th 18th century was possible through the active interactions. The appearance of literary scholars as the main consumers of ceramics and the taste of aesthetic patron affected the porcelain style. The landscape motifs. the poetic description on porcelain and the increase of stationary production were common. The identical taste of consumers in these country had great influence on the mutual interaction.

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          『하재일기(荷齋日記)』를 통해 본 조선 말기 분원

          방병선 ( Byung Sun Bang ) 한국불교미술사학회(구 한국미술사연구소) 2010 강좌미술사 Vol.34 No.-

          본 논문은 조선말기 분원공소의 공인이었던 지규식이 지은 『荷齋日記』를 통해 1891년에서 1910년까지 분원의 운영 변화와 제작 양상을 살펴보는 것을 목적으로 하였다. 먼저 19세기 도자 제작배경을 문헌 자료와 유물을 중심으로 고찰하고 하재일기의 내용을 분원 운영의 변화와 분원 제작으로 나누어 살펴보았다. 『하재일기』에는 이전에 밝혀지지 않았던 분원공소(1883-1896)와 번자회사(1897-1905), 번사회사(1906-1910) 등의 경영 구조와 진상의 문제점에 따른 경영악화 과정 등이 소상히 설명 되었다. 또한 다양한 진상기명과 시판된 그릇의 종류, 가격 등이 기록되어 당시의 상황을 재조명하는데 많은 도움을 준다. 그리고 해주 등의 외읍사기점과 일본 자기의 서울, 경기 지역 판매 저지 과정을 통해 분원이 시장 독점적 지위를 행사했음을 알 수 있다. 또한 서울 은곡가마와 일본인들의 분원 공장 설립, 양구 방산가마와의 협조, 각 장인들의 구체적 명단은 근대기 지방 가마와 장인 연구에 실마리를 제공하기 충분하다. 여기에 원료 산지와 일본 왜청 취급 가게 명칭, 분원에서의 각 작업 공정과 상회자기 성공 등의 희귀 정보는 『하재일기』의 도자사적 가치를 부각시키는데 결정적 역할을 하였다. This thesis examined the changes of Bunwon(分院) management and the production of ceramics from 1891 to 1910 based on the Hajae(荷齋)`s diary. First the production background of Chosun porcelain in the 19th century was investigated through the survey of documents and ceramics. And the Hajae(荷齋)`s diary was researched from the view of Bunwon operation and the manufacture of ceramics. The management of Bunwon tribute office(分院貢所: 1883-1896), the ceramic company(燔磁會社: 1897-1905) and the vessel company(燔砂會社: 1906-1910) and the problems of tribute were inquired. Various kinds of vessels and the sales items were also verified. Next, I discovered that ceramics from Haeju(海州) and other area kilns, and the Japanese wares were banned from sale in markets of Seoul and Gyunggi province. Because Bunwon had the monopoly for the compensation of tribute. And the establishment of Eungok(銀谷) kiln in Seoul, the Japanese potter`s activity in Bunwon, and the Bunwon`s cooperation with Bangsan(防山) kiln of Yanggu(楊口) were important news in this diary. Especially the list of potters of Bunwon and Japanese kilns could be a new momentum to study the potter`s life in that period. And the production sites of materials, stores of Japanese cobalt pigment, producing process of Bunwon wares, the first making of overglaze wares were available consequences from careful inspection of this diary. Finally it is clear from this brief research that Hajae(荷齋)`s diary is a valuable source of information for ceramic history.

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          皇帝ㆍ文人ㆍ景德鎭

          방병선(Bang Byungsun) 한국미술사교육학회 2008 美術史學 Vol.22 No.-

          이 논문은 청조 강희, 옹정, 건륭제 시기 청화백자의 양식변천과 경덕진 운영, 제작기술 등을, 內務府?案과 輳摺文 등의 문헌과 작품 분석을 통해, 고찰하는 것을 목적으로 하였다. 먼저 강희기는 강희 20년 경덕진 어요창이 제 모습을 되찾고 장응선 같은 감독관이 부임함에 따라 안정적인 기술적 토대가 마련되었다. 양식적으로는 명말청초기에 이어 화보와 판화 발간 붐에 힘입어 문인 취향의 산수문 회화 양식들이 청화백자에 그대로 나타났다. 명말청초기부터 유행한 괴이하고 과장된 바위 표현이 등장하고 절벽과 바위 묘사에서 보다 세밀한 피마준법이 사용되었다. 주제는 소설 삽화나 화보, 판화의 내용을 그대로 시문한 것이 많았으며 詩意圖도 계속 제작되었다. 산수도 이외에도 삼국연의나 수호전 같은 역사 소설, 西廂記와 같은 애정 소설의 장면과 귀비행락도와 사녀도 등이 시문되었다. 그러나 강희 후반기로 갈수록 문양에서 절파풍의 강렬한 농담 대비가 유행하였다. 산수 문양은 형식화 내지 정형화가 이루어졌는데 이는 강희 후반기 이후 산수화 청화백자에 대한 수요층의 감소로 인한 것으로 추정하였다. 옹정기는 옹정제의 명 선덕, 성화기 그릇을 비롯하여 강희기까지를 포함한 古玩에 대한 趣味와 엄정한 성격 탓에 이전 시기 청화백자에 대한 완벽한 재현을 목표로 ?製가 이루어졌다. 경덕진 어요창도 年希堯, 唐英 등이 부임하면서 제작기술의 향상과 철저한 방작이 행해졌다. 그러나 이전까지 보이던 새로운 양식의 출현은 주춤해졌고 정형화된 문양들이 주를 이루게 되었다. 산수문은 상대적으로 줄어들고 花鳥, 八仙 등의 길상문이 크게 증가하였다. 건륭기에는 황제 취향 탓에 古器 방제가 더욱 성행하였다. 경덕진 운영은 최고의 경덕진 관리인 唐英이 현지 생산 전문가인 老格을 協造로 임명하는 상호 협력 체제를 구축함에 따라 안정적인 생산 기반을 마련하였다. 양식적으로는 산수문 이외에 화훼, 화조, 길상문 등이 유행하였고 당시 서양화풍의 유행에 따라 청화 안료 사용에서 음영법이 응용되었다. 그러나 건륭 후반기에는 경덕진 관요 관리에 차질이 빚어지고 새로운 양식의 출현 없이 관습화된 모방과 고착화된 양식만이 명맥을 유지하는 결과가 빚어졌다. This article examines the management of the Imperial kiln in Jingdezhen, production technique and stylistic change of the Blue and White during the Kangxi to the Qianlong reign in the Ching dynasty. And it is also done through the survey of the archives of ministry of Interior and the petition to the emperor. Firstly during the Ching Kangxi period(1662-1722), the Imperial kiln in the Jingdezhen reopened in 1681. The painterly style of landscape which literati scholar preferred became shown on the blue and white owing to the prevailing publication of the painting album and the prints. The grotesque expression of rocks and mountains with fine brush stroke got used. Moreover the narrative scenes from the woodblock prints which illustrated the themes of landscape painting, histories, novels and drama of the late Ming were painted too. Secondly during the Yongzheng reign(1723-1735), emperor had the characteristics of collecting and appreciating the antiques including Sung and Ming ceramics. His patronage of porcelain made the potters reproduce the finest wares of the past and create new styles. Although the style of porcelain was simple and less creative, imitation was almost perfectly done. And the landscape decoration decreased while the bird and flower and the auspicious design increased. Finally during the reign of the Qianlong emperor(1736-1795), through the analysis of imperial archives and the texts of petition to the Emperor, the great innovator and controller, Tangying of imperial kiln was confirmed to establish the cooperative system with the local technicians, Laoke in Jingdezhen. He made mass production of high quality porcelains and wrote several records about the porcelain. On the blue and white were well represented the style of the Ming Xuande and the Chenghua period and even the western painting style. Fine brush strokes, color shading and gradation appeared on the depiction of animals and rocks. But entering into the late period of Qianlong, the operation of Imperial kiln got worse. And the stereotyped style got popular without new one.

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          나말여초 청자 제작과 전통기술

          방병선(Bang, Byung-Sun) 한국고대학회 2009 先史와 古代 Vol.30 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          본고는 나말여초에 이루어진 대중도자교섭과 청자 발굴 성과 등을 바탕으로 발생 초기와 이후 변천 과정에서 나타는 고려청자 제작의 전통기술에 대해 고찰한 논문이다. 먼저 통일신라시대에는 왕궁과 주요 사지, 성지 등지에서 다양한 중국도자가 출토되어 다양한 수요층이 형성되었음을 알 수 있었다. 이러한 소비계층을 배경으로 중국장인의 기술지도에 의해 제작된 청자는 중국 남․북방 청자의 양식과 기술을 많이 참고하였다. 반면 통일신라시대 고화도 경질도기는 인공적인 시유 여부를 떠나 서남해안을 중심으로 강력한 도자 전통이 존재했음을 보여주었다. 다음으로 청자 제작 기술을 몇 가지로 분류하고 중국 도자 기술과의 비교, 고찰을 통해 전통 기술을 파악하였다. 먼저 가마 구조에서 진흙 가마는 측면 출입구 등 중국 청자 가마와 유사한 면을 부인하기 어렵지만 벽돌 가마를 제치고 조선시대까지 이어진 것은 한국적 전통의 하나로 고려하였다. 다음 나무 재를 사용한 유약은 고려 초기 “고칼슘 저규소” 성분이라는 중국 월주요 청자 유약 성분과 유사성을 띠지만 발색제와 발색 메카니즘은 중국 청자와 다른 것으로 고찰하였다. 구체적으로는 유약의 발색제 중 티타늄보다는 망간의 양이 더 많고, 얇은 유층과 적당한 기포 생성으로 태토가 은은히 들여다보이도록 한 것은 고려만의 특성으로 간주하였다. 또한 고려 초기 강진을 중심으로 행해지던 초벌구이 역시 중국과 다른 원료의 한계를 보완하기 위한 것으로 경제적 고비용에도 불구하고 고려 전 지역으로 퍼져 전통기술로 정착한 것으로 판단하였다. The purpose of this study is to examine the Korean traditional manufacturing technique of Koryo celadon during the period of the late Unified Silla and the early Koryo dynasty. First the imported Chinese wares were investigated to study the background of celadon production during the late Unified Silla and the early Koryo dynasty. During that period, various Chinese celadons and white wares such as Chinese Yue, Ding, Xing and Tongguan wares were excavated in the palace, temples and castles of Kyungju and other places in Korea. Owing to the sponsor of them, the Koryo celadon potters were supposed to be guided to copy the Chinese southern and northern ceramic style and technique by the Chinese potters. On the other hand, there was a strong tradition of Korean ceramic Producing techniques in the earthen ware kilns which especially located along the southern coast of Korean peninsula. Next the celadon producing techniques were classified into several types and surveyed to study the traditional ones. There were two kiln types-brick and clay-in Korea. A clay kiln which was primarily used in southern pant of Korea, different from Chinese brick one, became the prime kiln type of Koryo dynasty while it was rare in China. And the ash glaze of Koryo celadon was supposed to have the different mechanism of coloring from Chinese Yue wares even though their chemical composition were very similar in the high calcium and low silica structure. But Koryo celadon glaze contained more manganese than Chinese Sung celadon glaze which contained relatively more titanium. It would make the Koryo celadon glaze more greyish green than the Chinese one. The thin glaze and the proper number of bubbles in the Koryo celadon glaze made the day more visible than the Chinese celadon. So it could bring forth brilliant new color by the combination of reflecting color of the body and the glaze of celadon. Finally, the biscuit firing was done around the Gangjin kilns in the initial stage of Koryo dynasty. But it soon spreaded to the whole kils in Koryo because the Koryo potters might think that it would be very useful to strengthen the material's hardness in spite of the high cost. In conclusion, the clay kiln, the glaze coloring mechanism and the biscuit firing were developed as the Korean traditional techniques.

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