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          대금 산조의 변천 과정 연구

          박환영(Park Hwan Young) 고려대학교 한국학연구소 2010 한국학연구 Vol.34 No.-

          본 연구는 대금 산조의 기원과 형성 및 변천 과정을 살펴보고 대금 산조의 창시자로 알려진 박종기와 그의 제자 한주환의 대금 산조를 분석한 후 산조를 오늘날 어떻게 현대적으로 활용 할 수 있는지에 대한 방향성을 모색하였다. 박종기에 의해 처음 연주되기 시작한 대금 산조는 세월이 지나며 여러 갈래의 유파가 형성되었다. 이러한 여러 유파의 산조 중에는 형태는 약간씩 다르지만 서로 비슷한 가락(선율)을 많이 포함하고 있으며 이런 비슷한 가락이 언제 누구로부터 비롯되었는지는 잘 알려져 있지 않았다. 그리고 각 유파들은 이렇게 전래되어 오는 가락을 자기 유파만의 고유한 가락인 것처럼 알고 있는 경우도 있다. 그러던 중 유성기 음반에 실린 박종기의 대금 산조 한바탕이 발견되고 재현 연주된 결과 현행 산조가 시김새는 조금씩 다르지만 박종기 산조 가락을 많이 담고 있음이 밝혀졌다. 이에 본고에서 대금 산조의 창시자인 박종기와 그의 제자인 한주환 두 사람의 생애 및 발견된 음악 자료를 바탕으로 두 사람 산조의 전 바탕을 분석하여 음악적 특징을 조명하였다. 그 결과 박종기의 산조가 한주환 산조를 비롯한 여러 유파에 실제적으로 많은 영향을 끼쳤음을 알게 되었으며 특히 음악적 바탕이 탄탄한 한주환이 박종기의 소리 더늠 대금 산조를 전수받아 오늘날 대금 산조의 뿌리를 내리게 하였음을 알게 되었다. 산조의 현대적 활용 가능성에 대해서는 오늘날의 산조가 즉흥성과 성음의 상실로 이어지고 있는 이유를 찾아보았다. 또 산조의 발전과정을 검토하여 산조의 생명력인 즉흥성과 새로운 방향을 찾기 위한 여러 활용방안에 대해 다루었다. 산조 고유의 특징인 즉흥성의 상실 원인은 산조의 악보화에 따른 정형화와 각종 유파의 수직성과 경직성에서 비롯된다고 볼 수 있다. 또한 산조가 오늘날 중요한 음악양식으로 자리매김 하기까지는 다양한 연주방식의 변화가 있었기에 가능하였으며 산조를 개척했던 많은 명인들의 예술혼을 더욱 승화시키기 위해 몇 가지 방안을 모색해 보았다. This study examined the origin, the formation and the changes of Daegeum Sanjo, analyzed the Daegeum Sanjos by Jong-gi Part, who is known to be the founder of Daegeum Sanjo, and Joo-hwan Hahn, an apprentice of Park, and tried to find the directions for applying Sanjo to the contemporary life, in a modern fashion. Daegeum Sanjo, played initially by Jong-gi Park, came to form schools of various branches with the passage of time. The Sanjos of those various schools are incorporating many tunes of mutual resemblance in spite of the slight disagreements in form, though it is not well known when and from whom those similar tunes were originated. Each school is playing its tune which had been being handed down in that way as if it had been a tune peculiar to them exclusively. And 'Daegum Sanjo Hahnbahtahng' in the record by Seong-gi Yoo was found and played as a reproduction, that it came to be verified that the existing Sanjos show a little difference in form, but much resemblance in tune, to the Sanjo tune by Jong-gi Park. This paper listened to, wrote in musical notes and analyzed the whole body of the Sanjos of Jong-gi Park and Joo-hwan Hahn for giving light to their musical characteristics, being based on the life stories of both and the musical data which were found. It has been clarified, as a consequence, that the Sanjo by Jong-gi Park practically gave a significant effect on various schools including the Joo-hwan Hahn Sanjo, and Hahn, who was of strong musical talents, inherited Park's Sorideoneum Daegeum Sanjo and made the present type of Daegeum Sanjo take root. As to the possibility of applying Sanjo in a modern fashion, the reason that the Sanjos of the present day are being led to the loss of impromptuness and vocal sound was looked for. The developmental stages of Sanjos were also examined, and the impromptuness, the vital power of Sanjos, and various application plans for finding the new directions were discussed. The reason of the loss of impromptuness, the peculiar characteristic of Sanjo is seen to be the standardization and the verticality and rigidity in various schools. Sanjos' positing itself as an important mode of music today is made possible by various changes in playing style, and a few programs for the further sublimation of many pioneering masters of Sanjo were regarded accordingly.

        • KCI등재

          유목문화 속에 반영된 몽골의 낙타 민속

          박환영 ( Hwan Young Park ) 중앙아시아학회 2009 中央아시아硏究 Vol.14 No.-

          As one of the five major livestock in Mongolia, camels are an important part of nomadic ways of living. So in this article Mongolian folklore will be analysed to find out, how and in which ways camels are reflected in folk-tales, proverbs and riddles, historical materials like "Secret History of the Mongols" and folk terms used in every day life. Firstly, once we investigate Mongolian camels inside folk-tales we will find out that most camels are regarded as physically tall and strong, but mentally stupid and stubborn. For this reason, in the course of competition camels are often loosing against physically weaker and smaller but sly animals like rats. Also it is interesting to observe that camels have got characteristic features from each of the twelve zodiac animals. Secondly, Mongolian proverbs and riddles concerning camels display their physical distinctions as well as their nature and habitude through sharp observations in the nomadic life. In particular, proverbs often compare camels with goats. This is because camels are believed to be big and tough whereas goats are small and weak. Thirdly, as far as camels are concerned, there are some written descriptions inside the "Secret History of the Mongols". Most of these historical documents reflect that camels are closely linked to nomadic livelihood. Also several comments in the text mention that Tangut people definitely contributed to the wide spread of camels inside Mongolia. In addition, inside these materials, camels are used as precious contaminants, sent with an envoy or a diplomatic representative in the nomadic culture. Fourthly, folk terms about camels in daily life conversations are worthwhile to note. Those folk terms display not only camels` age and sex, but also their delicate physical motions and habits. Also some folk terms show nomadic livelihood associated with camels while other folk materials are connected to a camel-breeding tradition, that give us an unusual insight into Mongolian nomadic life.

        • KCI등재

          민속 : 몽골의 가정생활 문화에 관한 일고찰 : 여성 민속을 중심으로

          박환영 ( Hwan Young Park ) 한국몽골학회 2010 몽골학 Vol.0 No.28

          In this paper investigate the family life culture in Mongolia. For this research four major areas such as, folk tales, historical materials like "the Secret History of the Mongols", proverbs and riddles, and everyday life space are analysed. Mongolian women always used to be regarded as precious figures inside family life in the traditional nomadic culture. In this regard, Mongolian women are usually believed to have plenty of courage and wisdom in order to adopt themselves into their husbands` kin groups as well as new environment in the steppe. Firstly, when we analyse Mongolian women`s folklore through folk tales, the relationship between sisters is very distinctive. Inside folk tales it is interesting to see the relationship between daughter-in-law and father-in-law to be described as more flexible than that of daughter-in-law and mother-in-law. Furthermore, in the occasion of an unfaithful and unreliable husband, Mongolian women often punish them strictly and rigidly without any mercy. Secondly, "the Secret History of the Mongols" shows that Mongolian women played a significant role in family and kinship matters. For example, both Alun Gua(one of Chinghis Khan`s old female ancestors) and Hoelun(Chinghis Khan`s mother) were the best known Mongolian women in this regard. Not only did they overcome all kinds of obstacles without their husbands, they also got over disharmony and hostility among their offspring with wisdom and strong leadership. Similarly, many Mongolian proverbs and riddles metaphorically describe Mongolian women as "being gentle in appearance but sturdy in spirit". Thirdly, Mongolian women and men have their own space inside Mongolian tents. The gender division of space inside Mongolian tents indicates the efficiency of domestic labour. Any Mongolian woman, who has three sons after marriage, gains the honorable title darhan ber(literally means the master of daughter-in-law) and she then will be revered with special respect. In addition, Mongolian women usually actively try to extend their social network. As a result of this involvement they strengthen their status inside the domestic domain.

        • KCI등재후보

          한국(韓國)의 문화(文化) : 여가문화와 농촌문화관광의 민속학적 고찰

          박환영 ( Hwan Young Park ) 한국사상문화학회 2011 韓國思想과 文化 Vol.56 No.-

          본고는 여가문화와 농촌문화관광에 대한 민속학적인 시각에 대한 연구이다. 한국의 농촌문화 속에는 전통적인 생활문화가 많이 남아 있는 경우가 많다. 따라서 이러한 생활문화를 소재로 하는 농촌문화관광은 현대인들의 여가문화로 중요한 가치를 발휘할 수 있다. 특히 친환경과 전원적인 농촌생활을 소재로 하는 생태문화관광이라든지 전통문화에 대한 체험 프로그램 등은 농촌문화관광이 가지고 있는 매력이라고 할 수 있다. 한편 문화의 시대에 있어서 민속은 가장 핵심적인 문화콘텐츠로 자리매김하고 있는데, 본 논문에서는 오늘날 여가문화 속에서 문화관광자원이 될 수 있는 농촌문화에 대하여 집중적으로 살펴보고자 한다. 현대인의 삶은 새로운 여가문화를 필요로 하고 있으며 이러한 여가문화 속에는 농촌문화관광자원이 중요하게 다루어질 수 있다. 농촌이 가지고 있는 이러한 문화관광자원이 현대의 여가문화로 충분한 가치를 발휘할 수 있도록 많은 노력이 경주되고 있는 시점에서 농촌이 가지고 있는 잠재적인 문화관광자원에 대한 집중적인 논의가 필요한 실정이다. 더욱이 문화의 가치를 중요시 하는 현대인들에게 좋은 길잡이가 될 수 있는 여가문화의 핵심적인 소재로서 가치를 가지고 있는 농촌문화관광자원의 몇 가지 가능성은 친환경적인 생태문화를 비롯하여 농촌의 일상적인 생활문화 속에서 찾을 수 있다. 여가문화가 가질 수 있는 이러한 농촌문화와의 연관성을 좀 더 확대하고 현대인의 생활공간인 도시생활 속에서 여가문화를 전통적인 농촌문화와 연계하기 위해서 여가문화와 관련한 농촌문화관광자원을 지속적으로 찾아내려는 노력이 필요하다. 이러한 의미에서 농촌문화관광자원의 구체적인 사례와 농촌문화 속에 내재되어 있는 지속가능한 현대 여가문화의 가능성에 대한 체계적인 분석과 방안모색이 요구된다. In contemporary society traditional culture is closely linked with cultural tourism as well as leisure culture. Cultural tourism based on traditional culture is probably an important resource for leisure culture. In addition, folk culture usually reflects people`s living customs and daily practices, therefore folkloric contents in cultural tourism are surely to rise in interest for leisure culture today. In this respect, this paper looks into the relationship between leisure culture and possible resources for folk cultural tourism, particularly some possibilities found in agricultural villages. A variety of perspectives on cultural tourism in traditional agricultural villages are given, such as ecological environment, traditional living culture and sustainable resources for cultural tourism. From these arguments some possible resources for folk cultural tourism as a possible newly emerging leisure culture today are derived. As I have presented, in the case of the Chahang village in the Pyongchang county, the regional tradition as well as every day living culture are good examples for cultural touristic resources. Also not only ecological environment but also occupational environment in agricultural villages have to be considered to be developed as sustainable cultural touristic resources.

        • KCI등재

          몽골 나담(naadam)축제의 민속학적 연구동향과 과제

          박환영 ( Hwan Young Park ) 한국몽골학회 2011 몽골학 Vol.0 No.30

          Naadam festival is one of the most unique and representative festivals of nomadic culture in Mongolia. Naadam usually is held in summer and thus it is one of the most popular summer festivals. The main events of Mongolian naadam are the so called three manly games: wrestling, horse riding and archery. Naadam festival in Mongolia contains annual customs, various traditional food and costumes, nomadic artefacts, etc. Hence it is meaningful to look into Mongolian folk culture through investigating naadam festival. The systematic approaches on naadam festival require not only diachronic perspectives, which include origins and folk tales of naadam, but also variations of naadam by cultural transmission in contemporary context. Namely, the former aspect is based upon historical documents whereas the latter deeply relies on folkloric fieldwork. Some Mongolian academics are eager to revive Mongolians` "old" tradition and history. Thus this new social phenomena has to be included into the research on naadam festival today. In this paper, on the one hand previous studies concerning naadam festival are broadly analysed, on the other hand visions and prospects of present and future approaches are suggested. In particular, folktales concerning naadam festival are analysed to show some possible research perspectives on this topic. Furthermore, naadam festival is closely linked to nomadic cultural elements such as proverbs and traditional words and sentences for blessing concerning nomadic cultures such as magtaal.

        • KCI등재

          『몽골비사』속에 반영된 몽골의 전통의례(傳統儀禮) 고찰

          박환영 ( Hwan Young Park ) 중앙아시아학회 2010 中央아시아硏究 Vol.15 No.-

          As one of the most representative historical texts on Mongolia, "The Secret History of the Mongols" also contains folk nomadic culture in 13th century Mongolia and surrounding Inner Asian regions. Recently, interest increased enormously in investigating on "The Secret History of the Mongols" from various approaches, such as family, kinship, food, annual customs, animal symbols, etc. Yet further spheres still remain to be examined. In this respect, traditional Mongolian rituals are one of primary topics to be researched. It is apparent that through the investigation on traditional rituals reflected in "The Secret History of the Mongols" the living culture of Mongolians in the 13th century is clearly projected. Hence, in this article, I try to outline various aspects of folk culture concerning nomadic traditional rituals in 13th century Mongolian society which all can be found inside "The Secret History of the Mongols". By looking into traditional Mongolian rituals from folkloric perspectives, I deal with four major categories of traditional rituals inside "The Secret History of the Mongols". Namely rituals for establishing fictive kinship such as anda relations, some significant rites for one`s lifetime (i.e. rites of passage), religious rituals and rituals for annual customs as well as festivals are those four distinguished rituals inside the 13th century text. In particular, rituals for both establishing anda relationship and making arrangements are relatively fully described in this historical document. In addition, some examples describing rituals for sacred mountains and shamanic performances are given in this written historical text. Lastly, on the surface, the historical documents like "The Secret History of the Mongols" apparently seemed to focus only on the historical development of political matters such as alliance, dispute, campaign, conquest, etc. Nevertheless, in depth, it also contains various cultural elements which are often either symbolically described or highly compressed into several keywords. Therefore, in order to understand systematically the living culture in the past the comprehension of folk cultural elements inside historical texts has to precede. In this sense, some further researches on "The Secret History of the Mongols" from the standpoint of folkloristics are highly in demand.

        • KCI등재
        • KCI등재

          기획논문 : 한국의 몽골 민속연구 20년

          박환영 ( Hwan Young Park ) 한국몽골학회 2010 몽골학 Vol.0 No.29

          In this article, I look into foot marks of academic research on Mongolian folklore in Korea since 1990, when Korea and Mongolia formally established political relationship, till today. For this theme academic journals, dissertations and published books concerning Mongolian folklore are carefully analysed. As a result, nine major folkloric areas are introduced as academic topics as well as research contents. It means that more or less nearly every sphere of Mongolian folklore during this period is broadly examined. The most distinctive point of Mongolian folklore studies in Korea is that certain folkloric fields, like folk literature, folk beliefs (ex. shamanism) or festivals, are overwhelmingly dominating as research subjects. This is because early studies on Mongolian folklore in Korea were not only closely linked to comparative perspectives with Korean folklore, particularly folk tales and shamanism, but also mainly relied on historical documents and written materials. For the same reason relatively visible research objects like festivals also were popular topics for folklore studies in Korea. Whereas in the middle of the 1990s folklore researchers, who carried out folkloric fieldwork in Mongolia, began to expand their research interests towards other folkloric fields such as folk society, folk arts, traditional food and costumes, rituals, folk language, animal symbols and others. In short, in retrospect of twenty years of Mongolian folklore studies in Korea it can be judged that an extraordinary broad research and overview was achieved, but more thorough and detailed analysis has yet to be accomplished. Nevertheless, it is encouraging that such a great effort by so many folklore researchers were made in various areas of Mongolian folklore studies. For the sake of systematic studies on Mongolian folklore, on the one hand, diversity of Mongolian ethnic tradition and culture has to be considered. On the other hand, for further solid research, surrounding Mongolian cultural regions, such as Inner Mongolia, Buriyat, Tuva, Altai and Kalmuk, have also to be included for research scrutiny.

        • KCI등재

          《몽골비사》에 반영된 동물의 민속학적 고찰

          박환영 ( Hwan Young Park ) 한국알타이학회 2010 알타이학보 Vol.0 No.20

          In the course of investigating the Mongolian nomadic culture, animals are found to be one of the most important cultural codes. So animals are embedded in every aspects of Mongolian nomadic folklore and culture. In order to explore animal symbols and folklore, the Secret History of the Mongols is analysed, because it contains not only historical documents but also displays traditional nomadic culture. Inside the Secret History of the Mongols, in relation to animal symbols and folklore, we can divide into four main topics such as folk classification, folk symbols and metaphors, folklore for livelihood and folklore of time. Firstly, in the field of folk classification, five main Mongolian livestock (horses, cows, sheep, goats, camels) are classified according to their colour, age, motion, physical distinction, etc. Those classificatory elements concerning livestock are unique characteristics in the Mongolian nomadic life. Secondly, folk symbols and metaphors are used in the Secret History of the Mongols to realistically describe historical figures and events. In other words, on the basis of some images and perception of animals, historical stories are symbolically as well as metaphorically presented. Thirdly, it is meaningful to note that folklore for livelihood projects nomadic ways of living in details. In particular, historical documents inside the Secret History of the Mongols reflect that grazing livestock as well as hunting wild animals were crucial activities for nomadic people at that time. Lastly, in the Mongolian folk culture, twelve zodiac animals are used to indicate days, months and years. Likewise in the Secret History of the Mongols years were represented by these animals. In that sense, it is clear that animals were a significant cultural code to read nomadic cultures during the 13th century when the Secret History of the Mongols was written.

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