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Development, oviposition, and survival of a commercially available predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot), were investigated to determine the life history parameters when they consumed a diet of cattail (Typha latifolia L.) pollen or tomato russet mites (Aculops lycopersici [Massee]) at 25±0.5 °C and 70±10% RH. Both diets were favorable for development, oviposition, and survival of A. swirskii. Amblyseius swirskii reared on mite prey showed improved performance as compared to pollen. Females laid a total of 26.8 and 38.1 eggs on the pollen and mite diets, respectively. The mortality of female A. swirskii was very low during the first 20 days on both diets, and the cumulative Weibull models that were used to describe age-specific survival and fecundity of female showed a good fit to the data. The net reproductive rate (R_0), intrinsic rate of increase (r_m), and finite rate of increase (λ) of A. swirskii were higher on russet mites than when fed on the pollen diet due to their shorter immature development period and higher oviposition rate. The intrinsic rate of increase (r_m) of the predatory mite was 0.185 and 0.201 on the pollen and mite diet, respectively. The mean generation time (T) and the population doubling time (D_t) were not significantly different for A. swirskii on the two diets. Our results provide life history information for a commercially available A. swirskii using two favorable diets and can be used to compare population growth under other diet sources.
This paper reports a simple rearing system for Cnaphalocrocis medinalis based on com seedlings diet. C. medinalis population under this system has been maintained by four stages (egg, young larva-1st to 3rd instar, old larva-4th to prepupa, and adult) at 25±2℃, 40±10% RH, and 16L:8D photoperiod in a laboratory. We have elaborated a new egg collection method using a polystyrene container (top Ø11.3 x bottom Ø9 x H8㎝) which has made a great contribution in easy collection of eggs and storage of them for long period. Under this system, pupation and adult emergence rate and pupal weight of C. medinalis population were close to the other reports by corn seedling diet and superior to those by artificial diets. Therefore this rearing system would be useful in obtaining C. medinalsis population suitable to each specific needs.
This study was conducted to determine the relationship of larval density of tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) to damage in greenhouse sweet pepper. Laboratory experiments, cage experiments by artificial release and field investigation were carried out in 2008. The leaf consumption rate increased greatly with larval development. The damaged leaves had several round or oval shape holes on the surface or lost certain parts of them, and the fruit damaged had a conspicuous hole on the surface or scar marks around the calyx. In the field investigation, fruit damage was highly correlated with larval densities and reached 3.5% damage at maximum. Cage experiments showed that numbers of non-marketable fruit increased as increasing larval densities released. The larval density at two weeks before harvest had a high relationship with the percentage of damaged-fruit at harvest. Corresponding larval density caused 1, 3, 5% of damaged-fruit was 0.2, 0.5, 0.8 larvae per plant, respectively.
Naranga aenescens Moore is an important insect pest found in rice paddy field.We investigated the development periods of N. aenescens egg, larva, pupa, and total immature insects at eight constant temperatures: 15.0 °C, 17.5 °C, 20.0 °C, 22.5 °C, 25.0 °C, 27.5 °C, 30.0 °C, and 32.5 °C. N. aenescens developed successfully from the egg stage to the adult stage at all the tested temperatures except 15.0 °C. The developmental time of each life stage was significantly influenced by temperatures. The developmental rate of N. aenescens increased as the temperature increased from 15.0 °C to 30.0 °C but declined at 32.5 °C, except in the pupa stage. The lower developmental threshold (LDT) and the thermal constant (K) was estimated using linear regression. The higher temperature threshold and the lower temperature threshold were calculated using two nonlinear functions. LDT and K from egg to adult emergence were 12.01 °C and 330.84 degree days, respectively. The temperature range of N. aenescens from the lower developmental threshold to the higher developmental threshold using a performance model (24.03) was wider than that determined using the Sharpe–Schoolfield–Ikemoto model (19.77). Developmental completion of N. aenescens was described using a two-parameter Weibull distribution model. Adult emergence frequency of N. aenescens over a full range of constant temperatures was simulated using developmental rate functions and the Weibull function. Biological characteristics of N. aenescens populations from different geographic areas were discussed.
The longevity and fecundity of Cnaphalocrocismedinaliswere investigated at temperatures of 15.0, 17.5, 20.0, 22.5,25.0, 27.5, 30.0, 32.5, and 35.0 °C. Adult longevity and fecundity were significantly influenced by temperature. Longevitydecreased with increasing temperature: it was highest at 15.0 °C (23.6 ± 3.51 days) and lowest at 35.0 °C(6.4±0.48 days). Fecunditywas highest at 25.0 °C (170.5± 45.54 eggs) and lowest at 17.5 °C (11.0±3.68 eggs). The oviposition period was longest at 20.0 °C (8.0 ± 1.09 days) and shortest at 35.0 °C (2.3 ± 0.48 days). Theoviposition model presented in this study consisted of two reproductive components (total fecundity and agespecificcumulative oviposition rate) and a survival component (age-specific survival rate). The relationshipbetween adult developmental rate and temperature was described by the Lactin 2 model (r2 = 0.98,p b 0.0001). The age-specific survival rate was well explained by a sigmoid function (r2 = 0.97, p b 0.00001). The age-specific cumulative oviposition rate was best described by the three-parameter Weibull function(r2 = 0.99, p b 0.00001). Temperature-dependent fecundity was estimated using the Briere-2 model(r2 = 0.94, p b 0.007). Daily egg production of C. medinalis in relation to adult age and temperaturewas estimated.
This study was conducted to examine the problems that would arise in our cropping systems when introducing Gain Threshold (GT) which is an important element in determining Economic Injury Level (EIL). Gain Threshold (GT) can be defined as the amount of damage (= yield loss) to justify management, and calculated by dividing the management costs by the market crop price. GTs for some pests in rice, soybean, and greenhouse vegetable crops cultivation were estimated and also compared with those in foreign countries. GTs and percentage of yield loss equivalent to them were estimated to be 4.6-6.1 ㎏/10a/season and 1.0-1.3% for brown planthopper, white-backed planthopper, rice water weevil, and sheath blight, whereas for rice blast in rice cultivation were 12.7 ㎏/10a/season and 2.7%. In soybean cultivation, the values for bean bug were 6.2 ㎏/10a/season and 3.6%. GTs and percentage of yield loss estimated for melon thrips, whitefly, and downy mildew in cucumber cultivation were 10.0-12.6 ㎏/10a/week, 1.4-1.7%, and the values for two spotted mite and gray mildew in strawberry cultivation were 3.1-3.5 ㎏/10a/week, 1.3-1.5%, and the values for American leaf minor, whitefly, and gray mold in tomato were 8.4-9.7 ㎏/10a/week, 1.7-1.9%. Overall GTs in our cropping systems were so low compared to those in foreign countries, which meant that the low GTs might yield the low EILs. Therefore, we could suggest that prior to direct introduction of GTs calculated from current cultivation systems in developing EILs it is necessary to seriously consider reasonable values of GTs or the yield loss equivalents to them.
본 연구는 1996년부터 1998년까지 경기도 화성시 발안 지역의 이앙재배한 논에서 발생하는 거미의 개체군 동태 및 군집자료를 바탕으로 관행의 살충제 살포가 거미군집에 미치는 영향을 분석하기 위해 수행되었다. 3년간 조사에서 조사 포장들에서 거미군집은 연간 변이가 적은 안정된 발생을 보였으며, 발생밀도에서 천적군의 90% 이상을 차지하는 최대 우점군이었다. 이 지역의 벼 생육기간동안 단위면적당$(0.25m^2)$ 평균 거미밀도는 약 10마리 정도였으며, 늑대 거미과(Lycosidae), 갈거미과(Tetragnathidae), 접시거미과(Linyphiidae)가 우점하였다. 거미군집의 밀도는 본답 초기에 벼의 이앙과 함께 이입으로 인해 형성되기 시작하여 중기부터 급격한 밀도 증가를 보이며, 후기에 최고밀도를 유지하다가 수확시기에 밀도가 감소하는 패턴을 가졌다. 특히, 비래 해충의 발생이 적었던 해에는 관행적인 살충제 살포에 의한 거미군집의 교란 효과가 적게 나타났다. 우점종인 황산적거미와 턱거미는 다소 다른 개체군 동태를 가졌는데, 황산적거미는 7월 중순부터 밀도가 급격히 증가하고, 후기에는 성체보다는 유체들의 발생비율이 높았던 반면, 턱거미는 8월 말부터 밀도가 급격히 증가하였고, 후기에 성체형태로 대부분 발견되었다. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the conventional pesticide application system on the rice spider community based on the quantitative investigation of arthropod community in the rice fields in Saran area, Hwasung-si, Kyeonggi-do from 1996 to 1998. Spiders were the highest dominant group comprising over 90% of all natural enemies in their density, and showed very stable yearly occurrence. In these fiekds the mean density of spiders was about 10 individuals/$0.25m^2$ during the rice growing season, and three families including Lycosidae, Tetragnathidae and Linyphiidae were very abundant. The colonization of spiders occurred in early season and they showed rapid density increase in mid-season. They maintained the highest density to the late season and their density decreased at harvest season. In the years of the low rice pest occurrence, the disturbance effect on spider community by pesticides were less. Two dominant species, Pirata subpiraticus and Pachygnatha clerki, had different population dynamics; Pirata subpiraticus showed the rapid density increase in the mid-July, and most of them remained immature stages, however, in the case of Pachygnaths clerki population, they rapidly increased in the late August and most of them remained adult stage during the late growing season.