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      • Consecutive automated production of carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals by sharing 11C-methylation reagent from one 11C-synthetic module

        박현식,이홍진,안현호,문병석,이병철,김상은 대한방사성의약품학회 2016 Journal of radiopharmaceuticals and molecular prob Vol.2 No.2

        Increasing clinical demand for carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals has triggered technological advances in fields of radiochemistry and automated modules. Even though carbon-11 has a short half-life (t1/2 = 20.4 min), the consecutive second production of carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceutical in one 11C-synthetic module should be delayed at least over 4 h to avoid the high radiation exposure. We herein aimed to produce two different carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals ([11C]PIB and [11C]methionine) by sharing of [11C]methylation source in one 11C-synthetic module. The synthesis of 11C-labeling reagents ([11C]CH3I or [11C]CH3OTf) is fully automated using the commercial TRACERlab FXC-pro module and is readily adaptable to 11C-labeling reactor for [11C]PIB as well as another 11C-labeling apparatus for [11C]methionine via the three-way valve. After completing the [11C]PIB production, the re-synthesized [11C]CH3I was passed through the three-way valve connected the polyetheretherketone (PEEK) line and loaded into the C18 Sep-Pak cartridge including the methionine precursor. The labeled product [11C]methionine was purified by a simple cartridge separation and reformulated into saline. The radiochemical yield of [11C]PIB and [11C]methionine were 5.3 ± 0.6% and 18.7 ± 0.8% (n.d.c.), respectively, with over 97% of radiochemical purity. The specific activity of [11C]PIB was over 110 GBq/μmol. Total production time of two radiopharmaceuticals needs about 2 h from 1st beam irradiation including quality control tests. Final [11C]PIB and [11C]methionine were satisfied all quality control test standards. J Radiopharm Mol Probes 2(2):123-131, 2016

      • KCI등재

        Seminal Vesicle Involvement by Carcinoma In Situ of the Bladder: Clonal Analysis Using Next-Generation Sequencing to Elucidate the Mechanism of Tumor Spread

        박현식,신현빈,이명신,김주헌,김선영,박진성 대한암학회 2020 Cancer Research and Treatment Vol.52 No.4

        We present a rare case of urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS), which invades the prostate and seminal vesicle (SV). A 70-year-old man underwent transurethral resection of bladder (TURB), and the pathologic examination revealed multiple CIS. Although the patient received intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy following TURB, recurrence of CIS was confirmed in the bladder and left distal ureter at 3 months following BCG. Radical cystectomy was performed due to BCG-refractory CIS. Microscopically, CIS was found throughout the mucosa of the bladder, left ureter, prostatic duct, and both SVs. Next-generation sequencing revealed significant differences in tumor clonality between bladder and SV CIS cells. Among 101 (bladder CIS) and 95 (SV CIS) somatic mutations, only two were shared, and only one gene (ARHGAP23) was common exon coding region gene. In conclusion, multicentric genetic changes, in line with the field-cancerization effect, may result in SV involvement by CIS of the bladder.

      • KCI등재

        전외측 대퇴피판과 주관절 전치환술을 이용한 주관절 및 연부조직 손상의 재건: 증례보고

        박현식,김동진,황종익 대한수부외과학회 2020 대한수부외과학회지 Vol.25 No.3

        Soft tissue and bone defect due to the machinery penetrating injury of elbow joint are a rare and challenging problem for reconstructive surgeons. After reconstructing soft tissue with anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap and external fixator, the authors planned restoration of elbow function using total elbow replacement (TER). Finally, the patient regained the soft tissue reconstruction and the motion of the elbow using TER, and satisfied with the clinical results. Therefore, the authors present the successful case of ALT flap and TER to treat the machinery penetrating the injury of the elbow. 주관절부 기계적 관통 손상으로 인한 연부조직 및 골조직의 결손은 드물고 어려운 문제이다. 저자들은 전외측 대퇴부 천공지피판 및 외고정기를 이용하여 일차적으로 연부조직을 재건하고, 2차 수술로 주관절 인공관절 치환술을 통한 주관절 기능 회복을 계획하였다. 최종적으로 환자는 주관절의 연부조직 재건과 인공관절을 이용하여 관절 기능을 회복하였고, 임상 결과에 만족하였다. 이에 본 증례보고를 통하여 전외측 대퇴부 천공지피판과 주관절 인공관절 치환술을 통한 주관절부 기계적 관통 손상의 성공적 재건을 보고하고자 한다

      • KCI등재

        가시광에서 하이브리드 렌즈를 사용한 반사굴절식 전방위 줌 광학계의 설계 및 성능평가

        박현식,조재흥,Park, Hyun Sik,Jo, Jae Heung 한국광학회 2020 한국광학회지 Vol.31 No.2

        주간 무인 감시를 위하여 가시광 파장 범위인 400~700 nm에서 렌즈와 거울의 기능을 동시에 갖는 구멍 없는 하이브리드 렌즈를 활용한 반사굴절식 전방위 줌 광학계를 설계하고 그 성능을 분석하였다. 하이브리드 렌즈는 렌즈에 구멍을 뚫는 작업이 없고 광학 부품의 수량을 줄일 수 있기 때문에 전방위 줌 광학계의 제작과 조립에서 많은 장점을 갖는다. 이 광학계에서 결상된 도넛 형태의 상에서 안쪽의 압축된 낮은 공간주파수의 상 영역을 확대하여 보기 위해서 줌 렌즈의 기능을 추가한 전방위 광학계의 최적화 설계를 진행하였다. 그 결과 최적화 설계된 광학계의 변조전달함수, 스폿 다이어그램 분석, 공차 분석을 통해 이 광학계의 성능을 분석한 결과로부터 설계 목표 사양을 만족함을 알 수 있었다. 줌 광학계를 주밍할 때 -30~50℃의 온도 변화에 따른 비열화 해석을 한 결과, 적절한 렌즈의 재질을 선정하여 온도 변화에도 상 거리 변화가 거의 없는 광학계임을 확인하였다. A catadioptric omnidirectional zoom optical system using a hybrid lens (COZOSH) that performs simultaneously two functions of a lens and a mirror was designed at the visible wavelength range for daytime unmanned surveillance, and its performance was analyzed. The hybrid lens has lots of advantages in terms of fabrication and assembly of a COZOSH, because of the obviation of a lens boring process and reduction of the number of optical components. Additionally, we designed the COZOSH to expand the compressed inner-image region of a donut image at low spatial frequencies. As a result, the optimized design performance of the optical system that satisfies all initial design specifications was obtained from calculation of the modulation transfer function, spot diagram, and tolerance analysis. We confirmed that the COZOSH is a passively athermalized optical system under conditions of temperature variation from -30℃ to 50℃, by using athermalization analysis during zooming.

      • KCI등재

        Suppression of CD81 promotes bladder cancer cell invasion through increased matrix metalloproteinase expression via extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation

        박현식,이수혁,이지수,신현빈,유승민,이명신,박진성 대한비뇨의학회 2019 Investigative and Clinical Urology Vol.60 No.5

        Purpose: CD81 is a prognostic biomarker for high-grade bladder cancer (BC). In this study, we aimed to determine the functional mechanisms underlying the role of CD81 in BC progression. Materials and Methods: In two invasive BC cell lines (T24, J82), CD81 expression was suppressed by the transfection of lentiviral vectors including CD81-specific shRNAs, and then the migration and invasion of BC cells was analyzed. Enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was also analyzed by collagen-zymography. The expression of MMPs was confirmed by western blotting using culture supernatants from each cell line. Signaling pathways related to MMPs were investigated using various antibodies. Results: CD81 was successfully knocked down by shRNAs in T24 and J82 cell lines. While the migration of BC cells was not affected after the knockdown of CD81, the invasive activity was significantly increased in both cell lines. Zymography produced distinct bands using supernatants from CD81-knockdown cells, whereas only faint bands were observed with empty vector-transfected cells. We also observed an increased expression of MMPs, specifically MMP2 and 9, in the conditioned media from CD81-knockdown cells by western blotting. Mechanistically, the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was associated with the invasive activity of BC cells, while U0126 (an ERK inhibitor) reduced the invasive activity of CD81-knockdown BC cells. Conclusions: Taken together, CD81 suppression promotes the invasive property of BC cells through MMP signaling via ERK phosphorylation. Our results suggest that the regulation of CD81 expression may have some therapeutic potential in BC.

      • KCI등재

        고령화 사회로의 패러다임의 변화에 따른 한국․일본 고령친화산업의 비교 연구

        박현식,김연정,허과현,배나래 한국아시아학회 2009 아시아연구 Vol.12 No.2

        The average span of Korean life has been increased by the medical development, the improvement of dietary and life environment since the Industrialization. Many social and environmental change emerged by the increase of the number of the aged caused by the entrance the aged society. Japan, which faced the fasted aged society, marketized senior-friendly industry in earnest and has concentrated on it for the next generation future growing industry since 1990s. In the meaning, the activation of senior-friendly industry can prevent the aged problem and further social problems at the same time. For this reason, it is sure that the silver welfare is the important mission that can improve the level of welfare of the whole nation, not just the current aged but also the potential aged. Therefore, considering the senior-friendly industry as the important criteria of the aged welfare service, the formation and tendency of senior-friendly industry of Japan, the fastest aged society were looked into in this study. Through it, the implication of the development of senior-friendly industry that Korea should take for the future was also found. By comparing the current condition and reality of Korean senior-friendly industry promotion with the those of Japan, the prospect and the development plan of Korean senior-friendly industry for the future are considered in this study. 우리나라는 산업화 이후 의학의 발달과 식생활 및 생활환경의 개선 등으로 인구의 평균수명이 증가 하였다. 인구의 평균 수명증가는 고령사회로의 진입을 가속화시켜 사회적으로 여러 가지 사회․환경적 변화를 경험하게 만들었고, 이러한 사회․환경적 변화는 고령인구를 대상으로 한 상품 및 서비스 산업에 대한 관심을 증폭시켜 한국의 고령친화산업의 성장 계기를 만들었다. 세계에서 가장 빠른 고령사회를 경험한 일본은 1990년대부터 고령친화산업에 대해 본격적으로 시장화하여 차세대 미래 성장산업으로 주목을 하고 있다. 이런 의미에서 고령친화산업의 활성화는 노인문제의 예방과 동시에 더 나아가 사회문제를 예방 할 수 있어 현재 노인뿐만 아니라 잠재적 노인인 국민 전체의 복지수준을 향상 시킬 수 있는 방안으로 필요하다고 할 수 있다. 따라서 본 연구는 고령친화산업을 노인복지서비스의 중요한 기준으로 삼아 세계 최대 장수국 일본의 고령친화산업 형성과 동향을 살펴봄으로써 우리나라의 향후 고령친화산업의 전망과 발전방안을 모색해보고자 한다.

      • KCI등재

        노인요양시설의 소방안전에 대한 노인복지적 고찰

        박현식,이옥진 한국화재소방학회 2016 한국화재소방학회논문지 Vol.30 No.6

        This study examined cases of duplication and confliction of legislation related to fire safety in long-term care facilities. In addition, the aim was to provide implications about those cases in the perspectives of welfare for the aged. In relationto fire protection facilities, long-term care facilities are regulated by the Building Act and Fire Protection Act. Amongthose Acts, certain gaps, and conflicts by duplicated regulations were found. Although the related-acts have improvedgradually, unsolved issues and retroactive applications still remained. The problems stated above were defined by reviewingspecific cases and legal improvements in the perspectives of welfare for the aged were suggested. 본 연구의 목적은 노인요양시설 화재 소방안전 관련법의 중복 및 충돌 사례를 분석하고, 향후 시사점을 노인복지적 관점에서 제시하는 것이다. 노인요양시설은 소방관련된 시설에 대하여 건축법 및 소방시설법의 적용을 받는다. 여기에서건축법 등 관련 법령과 소방시설법령 간 법 적용의 공백은 물론 중복 적용으로 인한 충돌 문제가 나타났다. 점차 관련규정을 개선하고 있으나 아직 개선사항이 산재해 있고, 기존 시설에 대한 적용문제도 남아있다. 구체적인 사례 검토 결과를 살펴보며 이러한 문제점들과 향후 노인복지적 관점에서 시사점을 제시해보고자 한다.

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