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A preliminary characterization of emissions and combustion behavior was investigated from a high pressure common rail injection system The engine used in the tests was a single-cylinder optical diesel engine equipped with common rail injection system. According to the injection pressure, the trade-off trend for NOx and THC was observed As expected, pilot injection affects spray and combustion evolution of subsequent main injection It was found that the pilot injection reduced NOx and THC due to a restrction on pre-mixed combustion and a slower combustion during diffusion<br/>
LPG가 수송용 연료로서 경쟁력을 유지하기 위해서는 지속적인 기술개발을 통해 휘발유와의 연비격차를 감소시키고 후처리시스템 등에 의한 가격 부담을 낮추어야 한다. 이에 본 연구에서는 안정적인 희박연소 구현을 통한 연비개선을 얻기 위해 실린더 중앙에 점화플러그와 연료분사기가 인접해 있고, 연료가 분사된 후 바로 점화가 이루어지도록 하는 분무유도방식의 LPG 직접분사엔진을 개발의 일환으로 연소제어인자의 변화에 따른 연소 특성을 분석하였다. 안정적인 연소를 위해 국부적으로 농후한 혼합기를 형성하는 성층희박연소의 특성상 일정 수준이상의 질소산화물이 배출되는 문제점을 갖고 있다. 질소산화물 저감을 위해 EGR을 적용한 결과 연료소비율과 THC의 배출은 약간 증가하지만 NOx배출은 약 15% 저감되었다. EGR 적용에 의한 연소속도의 감소는 초기 화염발달 시기에 집중되어 나타났으며 흡입공기의 희석효과에 의해 EGR율이 증가할수록 최대 열방출율 및 열방출율 증가 기울기가 감소하였다. In order to keep the competitiveness of LPG fuel for transportation fuel, the difference in fuel consumption with gasoline and cost for an aftertreatment system should be reduced with continuous development of technology for LPG engine. In the present study, spray-guided type direct injection combustion system, whose configuration is composed of direct injector in the vicinity of spark plug, was employed to realize stable lean combustion. A certain level of nitrogen oxides(NOx) emits due to a locally rich mixture regions in the stratified mixture. With the application of EGR system for the reduction of NOx, 15% of NOx reduction was achieved whereas fuel consumption and hydrocarbon emission increased. By the application of EGR, the combustion speed reduced especially appeared at initial flame development period and peak heat release rates and increasing rates for heat release rate decreased as EGR rate increased due to the dilution effect of intake air.
Natural gas vehicles have demonstrated significantly lower exhaust emissions compared to their gasoline and diesel fueled vehicles. Also a possible approach for meeting future emission regulations with current natural gas engine designs is to blend hydrogen with CNG. HCNG allows lean burn and retarded spark timing and and high thermal efficiency. These can reduce emissions considerably without the use of exhaust after-treatment system. The volumetric efficiency is known as one of the most important factor which affects significantly engine performance, fuel economy and further emissions. Supercharging system was adopted to investigate the influence of boost pressure on operating range. In this study, the boosted HCNG engine showed high thermal efficiency and torque for the lean combustion condition and the effect of supercharging and compression ratio on engine characteristics.
EGR(exhaust gas recirculation) is considered as a most effective method to reduce the NOx emissions. But high EGR tolerance is always pursued not only for its advantages of the pumping loss reduction and fuel economy benefit in Gasoline-Hybrid engine. However, the occurrence of excessive cyclic variation with high EGR normally prevents substantial fuel economy improvements from being achieved in practice. Therefore, the optimum EGR rate should be carefully determined in order to achieve low fuel consumption and low exhaust emission. In this study, 2 liters gasoline engine with E-EGR system was used to investigate the effects of EGR on fuel efficiency, combustion stability, engine performance and exhaust emissions. With optimal EGR rates, the fuel consumption was improved by 4%. This improvement was achieved while a reduction in NOx emissions of 75% was accomplished. Increase of EGR gas temperature causes the charge air temperature to affect the knock phenomenon and moreover, the EGR valve lift changes for the same control signal.