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Although it is presumed that cancer patients take various alternative therapies, the present status is not well recognized. The purpose of this study is to survey alternative therapies used by cancer patients receiving radiation therapy and then, find associated factors of taking alternative therapies. The study subjects were composed of those who receiving radiation therapy in the department of radiation oncology in 5 hospitals located at Extended Busan city and who were on follow-up after medical cure. They were 394 male and female patients over 20 years old. The mean age of the subjects was 53.2 years old and the age ranged from 23 to 83 years old. 188 patients($47.7\%$) used alternative therapies. Total 68 different kinds of alterative therapies were used, average 7.3 kinds per patient were experienced, and average total cost expenditure was 2,830,000 won. Among the alternative therapies, black bean($38.8\%$) was the most commonly used and brown rice($38.3\%$), ganoderm lucidum($37.8\%$), elm tree($33.5\%$), and phellinus linteus($30.8\%$) were followed in order of frequency. However in considering the time, cost and effort spent, phellinus linteus was the first. In terms of cost, phellinus linteus was the highest with average expenditure of 2,740,000 won. Among the motivation of using alternative therapies, expecting auxiliary help for the hospital therapy was the highest ($31.4\%$). About half of users($56.9\%$) of alternative therapies were recommended by their relatives to use alternative therapies. In comparing the characteristics of experienced and unexperienced groups, alternative therapy was experienced significantly more in patients of younger age(p=0.001), in patient of higher educational level(p=0.001), and in patients of higher income(p=0.030) The proportion of using alternative therapies was significantly higher in the group treated with chemotherapy(p=0.005), and in the patients who did not satisfy with radiation therapy(p=0.001). The frequency of drinking was significantly higher tendency in the inexperienced group(p=0.046), There was no significant difference in marital status, job, religion, other disease, surgical operation of the cancer and smoking staus between the two groups. Among the unexperienced group, $34.0\%$ of the patients did not take the alternative therapies because they did not have know]edge for the alternatives, and $22.3\%$ worried about negative effects on hospital-based therapy $58.7\%$ of them were willing to take the alternative therapies if the effects and safety were proven by the government or research institutes. $21.9\%$ of the patients wanted to take the alternatives if they were affordable. $72.3\%$ of the patients was willing to take them if their families recommend, but $27.2\%$ responded they would not take them in any situation. Conclusively, various kinds of alternative therapies which were not proved medically were exposed to patients, In these circumstances, it is required to investigate, study and evaluate the medical effects and safety of the alternative therapies.
Odontogenic keratocysts(OKCs) are frequently associated with erupted or impacted tooth. In such instances, the radiographic features simulate those of a dentigerous cyst. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a comparative immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67 as a proliferative marker in the OKC associated with or without impacted tooth. In addition, we have also been investigated with regard to the proliferative activity comparing the unilocular and multilocular varieties of the OKC. The material for this study consisted of thirty-two cases of OKCs (OKC with impacted tooth, n=16; OKC without impacted tooth, n=16) and ten cases of dentigerous cysts as a comparison. The results revealed that the proliferative activity of OKCs with impacted tooth was higher than those of dentigerous cysts. However, there was no correlation between Ki-67 immunoreactivity and association with or without impacted tooth in 32 cases of OKCs. In addition, this present study showed that there was no correlation between the unilocular and multilocular varieties of the OKCs imn proliferative activity.
The flow around free end of a finite circular cylinder (FC) embedded in an atmospheric boundary layer has been investigated experimentally. The experiments were carried out in a closed-return type subsonic wind tunnel with varying aspect ratio of the finite cylinder mounted vertically on a flat plate. The wakes behind a 2-D cylinder and a finite cylinder located in a uniform flow were measured for comparison. Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter was about Re=20,000. A hot-wire anemometer was employed to measure the wake velocity and the mean pressure distributions on the cylinder surface were also measured. The flow past the FC free end shows a complicated three-dimensional wake structure and flow phenomenon is quite different from that of 2-D cylinder. The three-dimensional flow structure was attributed to the downwashing counter rotating vortices separated from the FC free end. As the FC aspect ratio decreases, the vortex shedding frequency decreases and the vortex formation length increases compared to that of 2-D cylinder. Due to the descending counter-rotating twin-vortex, near the FC free end, regular vortex shedding from the cylinder is suppressed and the vortex formation region is hardly distinguished. Around the center of the wake, the mean velocity for the FC located in atmospheric boundary layer has large velocity deficit compared to that of uniform flow.
압전제료를 이용한 지능패널의 전달음 저감성능을 실험적으로 연구하였다. 제안된 압전지능패널은 압전 감지기와 작동기가 부착되어 있는 주구조물에 흡음재가 한 쪽면에 부탁된 구조이다. 이는 저주파에서 능동적 방법과 고주파에서 수동적방법을 혼용한 개념이다. 이 개념을 증명하기 위하여 음향실험을 수행하였다. 음향실험을 위하여 음향터널을 설계, 제작하여 음향특성을 실험하였다. 음향 특성실험을 통하여 800㎐까지 평면과특성을 나타내었다 단일패널에 흡음제를 부착한 지능패널은 첫 번째 공진주파수영역을 제외한 중주파수영역에서 뚜렸한 소음저감성능을 나타내었다. 첫 번째 공진주파수에 대하여 반전회로를 이용한 능동제어를 수행하여 약 10 ㏈소음저감을 이루었다. 또한, 공기층을 갖는 이중지능패널에 대한 실험을 통하여 공진주파수에서 뿐만 아니라 넓은 영역에서 좋은 소음저감성능을 보였다. 수동적 방법과 능동적 방법을 혼용한 압전지능패널은 넓은 주파수 영역에서의 소음저감대책으로 유망한 기술이다. In this paper. the transmitted noise reduction performance of piezoelectric smart panels is experimentally studied, The proposed piezoelectric smart panels are comprised of plate structure on which piezoelectric sensor/actuators are bonded and sound absorbing material is provided, It is a combination of passive and active approaches utilizing a passive effect at high frequencies and an active effect at low frequencies. To prove the concept of piezoelectric smart panels. an acoustic measurement experiment is performed, An acoustic tunnel is designed and its acoustic characteristics are tested, Below 800㎐. the tunnel exhibits a plane wave guide characteristics. When an absorbing material is bonded on a single plate, a remarkable transmitted noise reduction in mid frequency range is observed except the first resonance frequency. By enabling the active control of single smart panel with negative feedback control. about 10㏈ noise reduction is achieved at the resonance frequencies. The double smart panel got 4㏈ at the first resonance frequency and has more potential to reduce the transmitted noise in a wide range frequency. Piezoelectric smart panels incorporating passive absorbing material and active piezoelectric devices is a promising technology for noise reduction in a wide range frequency.