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Heterotopic pregnancy is named when an extrauterine(ectopic) pregnancy coexists with an intrauterine pregnancy simultaneously by many causes such as PID (pelvic inflammatory disease), endometriosis, IUD(intrauterine device), previous pelvic surgery and others. This is very rare in general population, with a range of occurrence estimated between 1:7963 and 1:30000. But recently the incidence has increased as the uses of ARTs (assisted reproductive technologies) including ovulation induction, IVF-ET (in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer) and GIFT (gamete intrafallopian transfer) increase. Because this has high maternal morbidity, mortality and fetal loss, early diagnosis and proper management is very important. We report a case of heterotopic pregnancy following IVF-ET with a brief review.
"제주시 해안일주도로는 제주도의 주요 경관도로중의 하나로 일제시대에 일본인들의 편의와 제주의 각종 산물을 외부로 반출할 목적으로 일본인들에 의해 만들어졌다. 이렇게 만들어진 해안일주도로는 큰 영향을 미쳐 제주 사회의 중심을 내륙지역에서 해안지대로 옮겨놓았다. 관광사업을 주수입원으로 삼은 현재에도주요 관광지가 해안일주도로와 연결되어 분포되어 있기 때문에 여전히 개발사업이 해안지역에 몰리고 있는 상황이다." "Although the coastal area of Jeju has already been developed, it has high pressure and demands for development continually increasing due to the increase of tourism and leisure activities. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to present objective guidance for the planning of the buildings on the seaside road with a view which have the largest impact on coastal landscape in order to enhance its visual quality. The results of this study are as follows : 1) It is chief element to make guidance for the use and planning of buildings in the conservation of the coastal landscape. 2) The D/H ratios which immediately influence an angle of elevation are different one another for the whole street. Toensure a sense of openness for the landscape, it is needed to maintain under 27° angle of elevation, which demands 1∼3 D/H ratio. 3) It is important to make 2.4 visual blockage ratio for whole street, but the actual condition is 4.48 ratio on average. To bring down the visual blockage ratio, the W/D ratio needs to be regulated. 4) Various techniques are also needed for harmonious building styles and scenic skyline going with coastal landscape."
This study did questionnaire examination for analysis of the effectiveness of R&D investment for small and medium -sized firm from March2003 to May 2003. For mitigating error of surveying, this study divided manufacturing industry into two groups; Firm which has above 8% average R&D rate compared with average sales budget and firm which has less than 8% average R&D rate compared with average sales budget. The result of study is below. First, firm which has above 8% average R&D rate compared with average sales budget had got a superior position in terms of management performance at specific variable; man-power for R&D, rate of man-power for R&D, the cost of R&D, the cost of R&D per one employee, compared with other. Second, firm which has above 8% average R&D rate compared with average sales budget had got a superior position in terms of method to gain technology, followed by importing it from domestic and international firms and corporate R&D with college, compared with other. Third, firm which has above 8% average R&D rate compared with average sales budget had got a superior position in terms of applying external sources; technical advice of specialist, consulting of management, cooperated study with college and research institute, compared with other. In conclusion, small and medium -sized manufacturing firm which has less than 8% average R&D rate compared with average sales budget need to improve it and pursue the alternatives to co-operate with college and research institute for R&D.