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핵테러는 현시대 가장 심각한 위협 중 하나이다. 단 한 번의 핵테러라 할지라도 대량 살상과 엄청난 고통과 원치 않는 변화를 영원히 초래할 것이다. 이러한 핵테러는 1995년 러시아 국립공원에서 매설된 더티밤 발견, 2001년 9.11테러, 2003년 알카에다 더티밤 실험 증거 발견 등 1990년대 이후부터 현재까지 일련의 사건들은 핵테러 및 방사능테러가 공상과학소설이 아닌 실제로 발생할 수도 있고 발생했다는 점에서 더욱더 공포로 다가오고 있다. 핵은 테러의 최종 목표물로 여겨질 만큼 그 파괴성과 위험성이 크다. 만약 이러한 핵 테러가 발생한다면 자연스럽게 원전사고로 이어져 방사능 누출 등으로 인한 피해를 보게 될 것은 불 보듯 뻔한 일이다. 우리나라는 북한에 의한 천안함 폭침 사건, 연평도 포격사건 등의 무차별적인 테러행위가 원전테러로 이어질 수 있다는 점에서 그 피해 가능성이 더 크다. 원전 상공을 비행금지 구역으로 설정해 놓았지만, 공중 테러 가능성에 대한 방공망의 대비는 취약하다고 할 수 있는데, 이는 실제적인 핵시설에 대한 미사일 공격 대비 대응, 감식체계가 구축되어 있지 않은 상태이기 때문이다. 더군다나 우리나라의 원전 수와 원전 밀집도는 세계 최상위 수준으로 원전에 대한 주민의 안전을 위해 원전테러 발생 시 참화를 방지하기 위한 대공 망에 대한 안보수준의 방어 전략이 필요하다. 이에 이 연구는 다음과 같은 방어 전략을 제시하였다. 첫째, 원자력 시설 등의 안전관리 강화해야 하는데 이를 위해서는 원자력 시설 등의 지속적인 안전진단을 통한 시설운영의 안전성을 확보하는 것이 우선시 되어야 할 것이다. 둘째, 방재 교육 및 훈련 등을 통한 방사능 방재 대응능력 제고해야한다. 핵 테러에 신속한 대응과 피해 복구를 위해서는 중대사고관리에서 사용되는 중대사고현상 KB(Knowledge Base)와 시나리오 KB, 제어도 사고관리 절차 등을 활용해 프로그램화시키는 것이 좋을 것이다. 셋째, 방사선 비상계획구역을 개선해야 한다. 방사선 비상계획구역은 국내외 적용사례와 현실적으로 잠재적인 위험을 고려한 사전예방의 원칙에 근거하여 육지와 해역범위를 포함한 30㎞ 이내로 정하는 것이 적절할 것이다. 넷째, 감마선 또는 양원 입자가 섬광 검출기에 부딪힐 때, 방사능을 규명하는데 도움을 줄 수 있는 전기적 펄스로 직접 기록되는 핵 테러 탐지 체계를 구축하여야 한다. 다섯째, 핵테러를 대비한 방사능 오염범위 예측 및 전달시스템을 확보하여야 하며 마지막으로 언론과 홍보를 통한 위기관리 커뮤니케이션 등의 방어 전략이 필요하다.
This study was conducted in order to find out early childhood teachers' understanding and current situation of the administration of the Korean traditional food culture education. The conclusions of this study will be used to create basic, preliminary materials for the education of the Korean traditional food culture. The following list contains the research questions for this study. 1. What is the overall level of cognition of the Korean traditional food culture among early childhood teachers? 1-1. What is the overall level of cognition of the Korean traditional food culture among early childhood teachers? 1-2. How does the background of teachers (final degree of education, length in teaching experience, working educational institution) affect the degree of the cognition of the Korean traditional food culture among early childhood teachers? 2. What is the current situation regarding the administration of the Korean traditional food culture by early childhood teachers? 2-1. What is the current situation regarding the administration of the Korean traditional food culture by early childhood teachers? 2-2. How does the background of teachers (final degree of education, length in teaching experience, working educational institution) affect the administration of the Korean traditional food culture education? This study was conducted with 258 current early childhood teachers working in kindergartens and day-care centers with school lunch programs located in the metropolitan Seoul and the surrounding cities in Kyonggi province. The research tools used were survey questionnaires made by the author based on the relevant references in the field of traditional Korean food culture education. The collected data were analyzed statistically by calculating the frequency and percentage of occurrences, and the XU-test was performed to determine the statistical significance of individual variables. The conclusions of this study are follows. Frist the most of teachers recognized the need of the Korean traditional food culture education. The order of reasons given were to teach the Korean traditional food culture, to change the children's westernized food culture to the Korean traditional food culture, etc. Relevant training workshops were virtually lacking although many of the teachers wanted to participate in such workshops. The teachers wanted hands-on type workshops in which they get to actually cook traditional Korean food. It was shown that there is no need for a separate Korean traditional food culture education by children's parents. Second, the current administration of the Korean traditional food culture education by childhood teachers is as follows. The Korean traditional food culture education was given to children occasionally without any prior yearly planning, and most of the occurrences dealt with specific subject matters in life. The most frequent content of such education was regarding types and ingredients of different Korean traditional food. The least frequently taught subject was the cooking tools and tableware used in preparing Korean traditional food. According to the statistical analysis, the more experienced teachers taught the subject about the comparison between the foods from the different countries. The most frequently taught traditional table etiquette at the table were having pleasant conversations and keeping mouth closed while chewing. The least taught traditional etiquettes were not lifting rice and soup bowls at the table and laying chopsticks on the proper place after a meal. The etiquette education was given frequently during meals and snacks. More experienced teachers taught more frequently on sitting first by the elderly using of table utensils first by the elderly and not making a scratching sound with a spoon and a bowl. Not making sound when eating and drinking was taught more in a kindergarten than a day-care center. Having a conversation at the eating table was the most freqently taught activity during the Korean traditional food culture education, while the least carried out activities were game and science activities. After statistically reviewing the teachers' background, it was shown that teachers with higher education degrees were feeding children more traditional Korean food as snacks. School lunch, nursery rhyme, role playing, board games, and growing Korean traditional food ingredients in a kitchen garden showed differences among kindergartens and day-care centers. School lunch program was more common among day-care centers, while nursery rhyme, role playing, board games, and growing Korean traditional food ingredients in a kitchen garden were more common among kindergartens. The following shows the children's preferences of various food categories given during school meal and snack times. For rice, the order of preference is given by plain white rice> rice mixed with cereals> bibimbab> rice cooked with bean sprouts. The order of preference for other major food besides rice is given by dumpling-guk> dduk-guk> noodles> sujebi. For soups, it was galbi-tang> samgye-tang> sullung-tang> bean sprout soup> yukgyejang. For stew soup, it was soybean paste jigye> sun-tofu jigye> kimchi jigye> fish soup. For hard-bolied dishes, it was beefjorim> chicken-jorim> tofu-jorim> fish-jorim> lotus sprout-jorim> bean-jorim. For smothered dish, it was egg-jjim> dried pollock-jjim> sesame leaf-jjim. For stirfried food, it was bulgogi> pork stir fry> squd stir fry> octopus stirfry. For jun or gui, it was fish-gui> fish junseafood/green onion-jun> bindae-dduk> leek-jun> young squash-jun. For cooked potherbs, it was jabchae> gitasukchae> kongnamul> cucumber sangchae> radish sangchae> bellflower sangchae. For kimchi, it was cabbage kimchi> ggakduki> young radish kimchi> cucumber sobakyi. The most liked dduk were ggul dduk and songpyun, while the most disliked dduk were squash dduk and searudduk. The most liked beverages were hwachae and shikhae, while the most disliked ones were sujeonggwa and omija tea. The most liked confectionery were Korean traditional cookies, while the most disliked one was dashiki. Rice ccked with bean sprouts, noodles, sullung-tang and fish soup, sesame leaf-jjim and dried pollock-mm, octopus stir fry, leek-jun, bellflower sangchae, and cucumber sobakyi were the least offered food items among institutions participating in this study. For dduk, beverage, and confectionary food, there were more food types not offered to childern. Squash dduk, jeungpyun, omija tea, and dashiki were least frequently offered. According to the survey result, it was shown that the number of cooking activities in one semester was one to two on average. Songpyun was most frequently, followed by Jumuckbob, and Kimchi. During such an activity, virtually no cooking utensil or tableware was used. Most frequently, teachers took children on a local field trip for the Korean traditional food education, followed by Korean traditional culture education centers and museums. The volume of relevant educational materials at hand regarding the Korean traditional food culture was decreasing in the order of audio materials, book, etc. The least possessed materials were measurement instruments used in various scientific activities, it was also shown that day-care centers were less equipped than kindergartens. The most widely used teaching material for teachers was the collection of early childhood education activity teaching guide, followed by electronic teaching materials and the collection of the traditional Korean cultural education on food. The most perceived problem in the Korean traditional food culture education was the lack of teachers' prior knowledge. For a more activated education, teachers saw the development of educational tools as the most urgent need. However, the methods for a more activated education showed differences among different institutions and teachers with different educational backgrounds. The 2-year junior college-graduate teachers answered the development of new educational tools, more children's field trips and development of new food items for children's taste in order of frequency. The 4-year university-graduate teachers answered the development of new educational tools, more children's field trips and teachers' better cognition in order of frequency. Teachers in kindergartens answered the development of new educational tools, more children's field trips and teachers; better cognition in order of frequency, while teachers in day-care centers answered the development of new food items for children's taste in order of frequency.
Recently, the discourse of the 4th industrial revolution, which is rapidly spreading, has led to the importance of collaborative ability based on self-directed learning and digital literacy ability. There is a criticism that science liberal education in the domestic universities still give one-way lecture or a way of incorporating lectures and discussions, which does not contribute to the enhancement of the qualities required for the 4th Industrial Revolution despite these changes in the environment. In this study, the current state of science liberal education in Korea and the United States, the teaching methodology discussed in the US and the cases of applying new teaching methods are summarized. On the basis of it, several suggestions for improvement is to be made as follows. First, students should be taught science through self-directed experiences by using project models or by participating students in local service project models. Second, it is necessary to consider introducing a multi-dimensional evaluation system, and absolute one rather than a relative evaluation system in order to motivate students participating in student-led learning. Third, there is a need to try multi-disciplinary subjects. For this, the support of universities should be expanded, and completion duty for the science liberal arts normally fixed to 3 credits should be adjust autonomically. Fourth, teachers is to be provided pedagogical training courses.
'Locus of Control of Reinforcement(LOCR)' is considered as one of the most important factors on responsible environmental behaviors(REB). It is defined as 'an individual's perception of his or her ability to bring about change through his or her behavior'. This psychological construct is divided up into two directions: the external locus and internal locus. The internal locus is important as a predictor of REB. Recently, 'The Environmental Action Internal Control Index: EAICI' has been developed and it is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the relationship of two variables. The purposes of this study were to develop a strategy to reinforce the internal locus or to converse external locus to internal locus, and to verify the effects by EAICI. A new strategy, 'Self Control Management Strategy' was based on the characteristics of internal locus and the key idea of this was to self-control and to manage the courses by themselves. EAICI scores of the control group was 99.83. All of them were internal and the LOCR of females was more internal than that of the males. This strategy was applied when the instructions were carried out on seven environmental issues by the experimental group. According to the results, the seven points of the EAICI were increased significantly. Therefore this strategy is helpful in reinforcing the internal locus or to converse external locus to the internal locus.
Purpose: Psychological distress is a significant and ongoing problem for breast cancer. These mental health problems are often neglected as they are not always properly understood. This study was performed to explore the trajectory of psychological distress over 1 year since breast cancer surgery and to identify the associated factors for the trajectory. Methods: One hundred seventeen women who underwent surgery for breast cancer completed the psychological distress thermometer and problem lists from after surgery to 12 months after surgery. Information on their sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was also obtained. Group-based trajectory modeling was performed to identify the distinct trajectories of psychological distress. Chisquare test and logistic regression analysis were performed to determine predictors of psychological distress trajectories. Results: A two-group linear trajectory model was optimal for modeling psychological distress (Bayesian information criterion = -777.41). Group-based trajectory modeling identified consistently high-distress (19.4%) and low-decreasing distress (80.6%) trajectories. Old age, depression, nervousness, and pain were significant predictors of consistently high-distress trajectory. Conclusion: Our results indicate that distinct trajectory groups can be used as a screening tool to identify patients who may be at an increased risk of psychological distress over time. Screening for psychological distress during disease diagnosis is important and necessary to identify patients who are at an increased risk of elevated distress or at risk of experiencing psychological distress over time.