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In this paper, focused on Heike Monogatari, a representative work of Gunki Monogatari, and examined how Bushi appearances are depicted in various battle appearances. By examining how the aspects of these early Japanese Bushi were represented in literary works, it was possible to identify how the early Japanese Bushi were perceived by the people of the time, and the differences between them. Unlike the representation of the Bushi formed by the existing media, first, the Bushi of the time showed that the battle pattern was similar to shooting by bow each other rather than hand-to-hand fight. In addition, I think that archery was not treated as a martial art but rather perceived as a sacred symbolism among Bushi. Next, we looked at the Nanori and vanguard struggles that the Bushi in the northeastern region showed in battle. In the case of Bushi in the northeastern region, they competed to take the lead each time a battle was fought to prove their worth, and they were agressively doing Nanori. As this was established as an aspect in the recognition of the authors and people of the time, it was confirmed that it is represented in the work. Lastly, the Bushi in the Kinki region, centered around the capital, are shown to be more likely to consider their honor and want fairly contested match than this tendency. I think this is because of the environmental requirements for accepting new values were in their case and they were closely related to coordination. Thus, in forming their own values, it may be assumed that they would have a similar recognition as the Bushi of posterity. .
- PID controllers with constant gains have been widely used in various control systems due to its powerful performance and easy implementation. But it is difficult to have uniformly good control performance in all operating conditions.In this paper, we propose a nonlinear variable PID controller with immune feedback mechanism. An immune feedback mechanism is based on the functioning of biological T-cells, they include both an active term, which controls response speed, and an inhibitive term, which controls stabilization effect. Therefore, the proposed nonlinear PID controller is based on immune responses of biological immune feedback mechanism which is the cell mediated immunity. and In order to choose the optimal nonlinear PID controller gaines, we also propose the tuning algorithm of nonlinear function parameter in immune feedback mechanism. To verify performance of the proposed algorithm, the speed control of nonlinear DC motor are performed. From the simulation results, we have found that the proposed algorithm is more superior to the conventional constant gain PID controller.
In this paper, we assume that the dynamics of DC motor and nonlinear load are unknown. We propose an inverse dynamic model of DC motor and nonlinear load using the artificial neural network and construck speed control system based on the proposed dynamic model. We also propose another dynamic model with speed prediction scheme using the artificial neural network that removes the undesirable time delay effect caused by the computation time during the real-time control. We suggest a dynamic model which has arbitrary number of speed arguments and is especially effective when the motor and load has large moment of inertia. Next, we suggest a controller that combine the neurocontrol and PID control with constant gain. We show that the proposed neurocontrol systems have capabilities of noise rejection and generalization to have good velocity tracking through computer simulations and experiments.
Objectives: Although the risk assessments for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) have been extensively studied, most of the existing risk assessments were limited mainly to indoor environments such as workplaces, schools, and multi-use facilities. Therefore, integrated risk assessment is needed to consider exposure in all microenvironments, including outdoors. The purpose of this study was to assess the differences in risk among sub-population groups according to time-activity patterns and reported concentrations, as well as the lifetime risk of Koreans. Methods: In this study, we estimated time-weighted average exposure concentrations of NO2and O3for preschool children, students, housewives, workers, and seniors using residential time and indoor concentrations (house, school or workplace, other), outdoors, and transport by meta-analysis method. The risk for NO2and O3were assessed by hazard quotient using reference concentrations 30 and 60 ppb, respectively. The risk assessments were conducted through 1,000,000 Monte-Carlo simulations for probabilistic analysis. Results: Preschool children, students, housewives, workers, and seniors spent 91.9, 86.0, 79.8, 82.2, and 77.3% of their day in a house, school, or workplace, respectively. The risk assessment for the lifetime of a housewife and a worker showed that 33.8 and 28.4% of hazard quotients of NO2exceed 1, respectively, and more than 99%of hazard quotient of O3were less than 1. Conclusions: The risk of NO2and O3by sub-population group and for the lifetime of housewives and workerswere assessed. The risk for NO2was higher than for O3and showed a different risk by sub-population group. Both NO2and O3showed a higher risk for housewives than for workers. This study can be used as a basis for lifetime exposure and risk assessment for NO2and O3.