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      • KCI등재

        Lactobacillus acidophilus Improves Intestinal Inflammation in an Acute Colitis Mouse Model by Regulation of Th17 and Treg Cell Balance and Fibrosis Development

        박진실,최정원,전주연,권지예,이보인,양철우,성환,조미라 한국식품영양과학회 2018 Journal of medicinal food Vol.21 No.3

        Disruption of the balance among the microbiota, epithelial cells, and resident immune cells in the intestine is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Probiotics exert protective effects against IBD, and probiotic commensal Lactobacillus species are common inhabitants of the natural microbiota, especially in the gut. To investigate the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus on the development of IBD, L. acidophilus was administered orally in mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. DSS-induced damage and the therapeutic effect of L. acidophilus were investigated. Treatment with L. acidophilus attenuated the severity of DSS-induced colitis. Specifically, it suppressed proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, and IL-17 in the colon tissues, which are produced by T helper (Th) 17 cells. Moreover, in vitro L. acidophilus treatment directly induced T regulatory (Treg) cells and the production of IL-10, whereas the production of IL-17 was suppressed in splenocytes. In addition, we found that L. acidophilus treatment decreased the levels of α-smooth muscle actin, a marker of activated myofibroblasts, and type I collagen compared with control mice. These results suggest that L. acidophilus may be a novel treatment for IBD by modulating the balance between Th17 and Treg cells, as well as fibrosis development.

      • KCI등재

        대마초 합법화 논쟁: 미국과 네덜란드 사례의 비교분석

        박진실 한국경찰법학회 2017 경찰법연구 Vol.15 No.2

        This paper is to analyze the major cases of cannabis legitimization by comparatively studying the Netherlands case of decriminalization of cannabis since 1976 with the legalization of cannabis in Colorado, USA in 2014. Cannabis is currently the most commonly used illegal drug used by approximately 200 million adults worldwide. Nevertheless, discussions on the legalization of cannabis have not progressed well, and even the medical use of cannabis has been debated without reaching consensus. The basis of US drug policy is the Controlled Drug Act established in 1970, and the Netherlands is based on the Opium Law enacted in 1976. The United States classifies all drugs into five categories (I to V), of which cannabis is classified as Class I drugs and strictly prohibited. The Netherlands, on the other hand, strongly restrict heroin, cocaine, and amphetamines, which are highly addictive, from 'unacceptable risks', while cannabis is classified as 'acceptable risk', and up to 30g of it is allowed for personal use or consumption. As in the case of the United States and the Netherlands, which have implemented different policies on cannabis, a country's policies are formed in different historical and social contexts. Because of these diverse circumstances, even if one country legitimizes cannabis or not, it can not be determined whether the policy is successful or unsuccessful. As a matter of fact, the case of Colorado, where allows cannabis for recreational use, provides a new opportunity for domestic and foreign debate about the legalization of cannabis. In our case, we can no longer postpone legitimacy debate on cannabis if we can correct misperception about the toxicity of cannabis and consider medical value. 이 논문은 2014년 미국 콜로라도주가 대마초를 합법화한 사건을 계기로 1976년부터 대마초를 비범죄화한 네덜란드 사례를 연구하여 대마초 합법화에 대한 주요 쟁점을 비교분석하고자 한다. 대마초는 현재 전 세계 성인인구의 약 2억 명이 사용하여 가장 많이 사용되는 불법마약이다. 그럼에도 불구하고 대마초의 합법화에 대한 논의는 좀처럼 진전을 보지 못하였고, 여전히 대마초의 의료적인 사용조차도 합의를 이끌어 내지 못하고 있다. 미국 마약정책의 기초는 1970년에 제정된 통제약물법이며, 네덜란드는 1976년에 제정된 아편법을 기초로 한다. 미국은 모든 마약류를 다섯 가지(I~V)로 분류하였는데, 대마초를 바로 I등급 마약으로 분류하여 엄격하게 금지한다. 반면에 네덜란드는 중독성이 강한 헤로인, 코케인, 암페타민 등을‘받아들일 수 없는 위험(unacceptable risks)’으로 보아 강하게 제한하고, 대마초 등은 ‘받아들일 수 있는 위험(acceptable risk)’으로 분류하여 30g 이하의 경우 개인적 사용이나 소비를 허용한다. 대마초에 대한 서로 다른 정책을 시행한 미국과 네덜란드의 사례에서 보듯이 한 나라의 정책은 서로 다른 역사 및 사회적 상황에서 형성된다. 이러한 다양한 환경 때문에 한 나라가 대마초를 불법화하거나 합법화한다고 해도 그 정책의 성공 또는 실패 여부를 단정할 수는 없다. 분명한 사실은 대마초의 오락용 흡연을 허용한 콜로라도 주는 국내외 대마초 합법화에 대한 논쟁의 새로운 계기를 제공하였다. 우리의 경우도 대마초의 유해성에 대한 잘못된 인식을 바로 잡고 또한 의료적 가치를 고려한다면 대마초의 합법화 논의를 더 이상 미룰 수만은 없다.

      • KCI등재

        실내조명에 따른 무궁화 ‘백단심’의 경관구성요소별 특징 및 도입방안

        박진실,권해연,송종은,최경옥 전북대학교 부설 휴양및경관계획연구소 2022 휴양및경관연구 (J East Asian Landscape Studies) Vol.16 No.1

        This study was conducted to find an efficient introduction plan by examining the landscape characteristics of each indoor light source in order to introduce Mugunghwa, which has high symbolism as a national flower, into the indoor space. As an experimental plant, Hibiscus syriacus 'Paektanshim known to have relatively strong shadow tolerance characteristics among Mugunghwa varieties, was selected, and experiments were conducted at four types of light sources, including fluorescent lamp, LED lamp, three wave lamp, and optical fiber, and at 500, 750, 1500, and 2,500lux for seven months. Leaf length, leaf width, plant height, number of leaves, number of fallen leaves, joint internode length, and chlorophyll were investigated as landscape measurements of plants. Photosynthesis rate(Pn), CO2 absorption rate(CO2), intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci), atmospheric CO2 concentration(Ca), pore conductivity(Cs), and increasing amount(Tr) were measured as physiological factors of plants. In addition, stomatal density was observed to confirm whether photosynthesis rate was well performed, and the blooming rate of each light source and the color difference meter were used to investigate. The experimental results and introduction plans are as follows. First, among the landscape components of plants, the number of leaves showed a statistically significant difference in all light sources. The number of leaves affects the width of the tree's crown and tree shapes along leaf length and leaf width, and the higher the luminosity, the more leaved, and the most leaved under fiber optics 1,500lux. The higher the luminosity, the larger the size of the leaf length and leaf width. Second, Mugunghwa has unique leaves, but its flowers are beautiful and symbolic, so it is preferred, but Hibiscus syriacus 'Paektanshim blooms from August to October. Looking at the optical conditions of each light source for the purpose of viewing flowers, it was identified as 750lux to 2,500lux for fluorescent lamp, 1,500lux to 2,500lux for LED lamp, 750lux to 2,500lux for three wave lamp, and 1,500lux to 2,500lux for fiber optics. The most effective light source and light intensity were found to be 1,500lux and 2,500lux of optical fibers. Third, the freshness of the leaves can also be measured by the amount of photosynthesis rate and the stomatal characteristics of the leaves, and the higher the luminous intensity, the higher the photosynthesis rate. The stomatal frequency by light source was 7 to 28, and the largest stomatal frequency was found in 1,500 lux of LED lights and 1,500 lux of optical fiber. Fourth, as a result of color difference analysis, the flower color was closer to light green than pink and showed a color close to blue. The value of L* was found to be very bright as it showed a value of 90 or more. Finally, considering the growth condition, growth volume, and flowering rate, it is judged that the optimal light source of the Hibiscus syriacus 'Paektanshim is 1,500lux of optical fiber. However, it is necessary to improve the utilization value and utilization area of the national flower Mugunghwa by identifying the appropriate light source and appropriate light intensity for more Mugunghwa varieties in the future and adding experiments on the flowering rate by age. 본 연구는 나라꽃으로서 상징성이 높은 무궁화를 실내공간에 도입하기 위하여 실내광원별 경관적 특성을 살펴서 효율적인 도입방안을 모색하기 위해 수행되었다. 공시식물로서 무궁화 품종 중 내음성이 비교적 강하다고 알려진 무궁화 “백단심” 을 선정하였으며 형광등, LED등, 삼파장 등, 광섬유 4종류의 광원과 500, 750, 1500, 2,500lux의 광도에서 7개월간 실험하였다. 식물의 경관적 측정요소로 엽장, 엽폭, 초장, 엽수, 낙엽수, 절간장, 엽록소함량 등을 조사하였다. 식물의 생리적 요소로서 광합성률(Pn), CO2흡수율(CO2), 세포내 CO2농도(Ci), 대기중 CO2농도(Ca), 기 공전도도(Cs), 증산량(Tr) 등을 측정하였다. 또한 기공수를 관찰하여 광합성이 잘 이루어지고 있는지 확인하였으며 광원별 개화율과 색차계를 이용한 화색을 조사하였다. 실험결과 및 도입방안은 다음과 같다. 첫째, 식물의 경관적 구성요소 중 엽수가 모든 광원에서 통계적 유의성을 보 였다. 엽수는 엽장, 엽폭과 함께 수관 형성 및 수형에도 영향을 미치는데 광도가 높을수록 많이 출엽하였으며, 광섬유 1,500lux 하에서 가장 많이 출엽하였다. 엽장 엽폭은 광도가 높을수록 크기가 커지는 경향을 보였다. 둘째, 무궁화는 잎도 특이하지만 꽃이 아름답고 상징성이 있어서 선호되는데 무궁화 “백단심” 은 8월~10월에 개화한다. 꽃을 감상할 목적으로 광원별 광조건을 살펴보면, 형광등 750lux~2,500lux, LED등 1,500lux~2,500lux, 삼파장등 750lux~2,500lux, 광섬유 1,500lux~2,500lux로 파악되었다. 가장 효과적인 광원 및 광도는 광섬유 1,500lux~2,500lux인 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 잎의 신선도는 광합성량 및 잎의 기공의 특성으로도 가늠해 볼 수 있는데 광도가 높을수록 광합성률은 높아졌다. 광원별 기공의 수는 7~28개로 나타났으며 LED등 1,500lux 와 광섬유 1,500lux에서 가장 많은 기공수를 보였다. 넷째, 색차계 분석결과 꽃색은 분홍빛 보다는 옅은 Green에 가까우며, Blue에 가까운 색상을 나타내었다. L*(명도)의 값은 90 이상의 수치를 나타내어 명도가 매우 높은 것으로 조사되었다. 최종적으로 생육상태 및 생장량, 개화율을 고려 할 때 무궁화 백단심의 최적광원은 광섬유 1,500lux인 것으로 판단된다. 그러나 향후 더 많은 무궁화 품종을 대상으로 적정광원과 적정광도를 파악하고 무궁화 연령별 개화율에 대한 실험을 추가적으로 하여 나라꽃 무궁화의 활용가치 및 활용 영역을 향상할 필요성이 있다.

      • KCI등재

        Cottonseed Oil Protects Against Intestinal Inflammation in Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Inflammatory Bowel Disease

        박진실,최정원,황선희,김재경,김은경,이선영,이보인,성환,조미라 한국식품영양과학회 2019 Journal of medicinal food Vol.22 No.7

        Dietary products may protect against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) through mechanisms such as forming gut microbiota structures and providing substrates for microbial metabolism. Recently, many studies have been conducted on diets that potentially alleviate or suppress IBD development. To assess the efficacy of dietary oils in treating IBD, we examined the protective effects of olive oil, coconut oil, corn oil, and cottonseed oil in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. Treatment with cottonseed oil or corn oil ameliorated the severity of DSS-induced colitis, alleviating weight loss and preventing the shortening of the intestine. Moreover, cottonseed oil or corn oil treatment significantly reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-17, as well as the expression of oxidative stress markers, including 8-hydroxyguanosine and nitrotyrosine in colon sections, compared with vehicle treatment. Cottonseed oil treatment inhibited intestinal fibrosis by reducing the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and type I collagen, compared with vehicle treatment in mice with DSS-induced colitis. Cottonseed oil protects against intestinal inflammation and the development of intestinal fibrosis by reducing inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers, and may therefore be useful as a dietary product with therapeutic benefits for IBD.

      • KCI등재

        경관영향평가제도 시사점 도출 및 정책 활용 1) – 영국의 노썸버랜드 경관영향평가를 중심으로 –

        박진실,신예은,김수연,이은라,안경진 전북대학교 부설 휴양및경관계획연구소 2021 휴양및경관연구 (J East Asian Landscape Studies) Vol.15 No.1

        무분별한 산업화로 인한 스카이라인의 무질서, 자연경관 오염 등은 경관의 훼손을 가속화시킨다. 이에 국토의 경관을 보다 효율적으로 관리, 조성 및 복원하기 위하여 현재 환경부에서는 시행되어지 고 있는 개발사업 등을 대상으로 자연 경관 심의지침을 도입하였다. 제도에 입각하여 사업유형을 분류한 후, 정성적 평가를 시행하는 국내 지침 특성 상, 평가자에 의해 결과가 달라져 주관적이며 이는 곧 신뢰성의 문제로 이어진다. 반면 개발 대상지 각각의 평가 인자들을 도출한 후, 정성적, 정량 적 평가를 병행하는 영국의 경관영향평가는 지침의 유연성으로 인해 경관의 특이점을 반영하며 주 관적 관점 또한 최소화되어진다. 본 연구에서는 국내 및 영국의 경관영향평가에 대한 고찰과 영국 노썸버랜드 경관영향평가 사례 분석을 통하여 국내의 경관영향평가의 한계점과 보완 가능성을 제시 하였다. 이는 국내외 경관영향평가에 대한 기초적 연구로, 향후 이어질 경관영향평가의 세부적인 가이드라인 개발 또는 정책 수립에 합리적인 발전 방안 제시에 기여할 수 있을 것으로 예상된다. Indiscreet industrialization accelerates natural landscape pollution and skyline disorder. In order to manage, create, and restore the landscape more efficiently, the Environment Ministry introduced guidelines for natural landscape deliberation for development projects currently in place. Due to the nature of domestic guidelines that classify business types and evaluate them qualitatively according to the law, subjective results arise, which causes reliability problems. Meanwhile, the UK Landscape Impact Assessment, which derives assessment factors for each site and then combines qualitative and quantitative assessments, reflects landscape characteristics and minimizes subjective views due to the flexibility of guidance. In this study, the limitations and the possibility of supplementation of the domestic landscape impact assessment were presented through the UK landscape impact assessment and the Northumberland landscape impact assessment case analysis. This is a basic study of landscape impact assessment at home and abroad, and is expected to contribute to the development of detailed guidelines for landscape impact assessment or the presentation of reasonable development measures in the future.

      • KCI등재

        다크넷과 마약밀매의 위협 실태와 성격

        박진실,장노순 한국경찰연구학회 2022 한국경찰연구 Vol.21 No.1

        본 연구는 정보통신기술의 발전으로 범죄조직의 활동 영역이 확장되면서 법집행(치 안)과 국가안보의 위협이 상호 교차하여 중첩되는 영역에서 발생하고 있음을 마약밀매 의 사례를 통해 분석하려고한다. 치안과 국가안보의상호교차성은범죄와국가안보 위 협이 전통적으로 각기 별개의 영역으로 구분되었지만, 최근에는 서로 결합하여 영향을 미치고 특성이 혼재하여 나타나고 있음을 의미한다. 즉, 비공개 웹인 다크웹은 국제범 죄 집단이 마약을 밀매하는 활동의 수단으로 활용되고 있고, 이는 기존의 국제안보 혹 은 법집행의 개념만으로 분류하여 다루기에 성격의 모호성이 높다. 이 같은 흐름은 아직까지 형사사법의 대응 차원에서 이루어지고 있지만, 국가안보의 확장된 개념을 포함 하는 상호교차성의 전략적 의미가 수용되고 다루어져야 함을 보여준다. 국제범죄 집단 활동의 범주와위협의 심각성은과거처럼 법집행기관에서 단순히 국제범죄의 수준으로 취급하기에는 불충분하다. 국가안보를 담당하는 기관들의 적극적인 공조와 협력체제가 필요한 시점이다. This paper is aimed at exploring the intersubjectivity of law enforcement and national security by which international organizational crimes such as darknet and global drug tracking can be understood as multiple threats. Generally, the agencies of law enforcement and national security have been responsible of their own missions separately. However, in recent years such two governmental activities are closely coordinated to deal with international crimes in cyberspace. Darknet is used to traffick drugs by international criminal organizations. A different approach is required to appraise this sort of crimes that should be solved in terms of cooperation of the agencies of law enforcement and national security. International crimes that are transacted in cyberspace are covert and insufficient to be responded domestically by a single agency. Law enforcement and national security are to cooperate more closely to prevent and punish those crimes.

      • KCI등재후보

        마약류 중독자에 대한 치료현황 및 대책에 대한 연구

        박진실(Park Jin Sil) 중앙대학교 법학연구원 2015 法學論文集 Vol.39 No.2

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        The domestic drug crimes are rapidly increasing recently. As the drug trades using the internet, particularly, have been greatly increased, drug offenders who were arrested for trading drugs using the internet in the first half year were doubled compared to the same period in the previous year. The statistics showing the amount of drugs flow in Korea is increasing so quickly that it cannot be compared to the past. There are constant news articles on recidivism of drug crimes of celebrities. Although drug crimes increase, and recidivism rate of drug offenders is significantly high as above, treatment environment for drug addicts in Korea is evaluated to be very vulnerable compared to advanced countries including the U.S. Despite the fact that treatment system has been provided in Korea, therapeutic records for drug-addicted offenders published by the public prosecution every year are very low with lack of data on treatment details and results as well as research on it. In addition, narcotic crimes are expected to continue to increase rapidly because of development of the internet, increase of Korean students studying abroad, increase of overseas visitors and development of new illegal drugs. It is considered that, although strong punishment is important for drug crimes, treatment, rehabilitation and preventive education should be employed to deal with drug-using offenders; discussing countermeasures for drug offenders without improving current treatment and rehabilitation system is likely to be nothing more than empty talk. This paper, therefore, looked at overview, programs, and effects of drug addiction treatment system in the U.S. in which the most advanced policies and facilities are equipped regarding drug addiction treatment and rehabilitation after diagnosing the current status of treating drug addicts in Korea and examining challenges. In the U.S., illegal drug abuse and drug addicts are perceived as diseases rather than crimes. Such solid establishment of recognition on drugs leads therapeutic judicial systems such as drug courts and therapeutic service through numerous drug addiction treatment organizations in the U.S. Also, Act of Lifelong Education Support for Treatment of Drug Addicts has been proposed. This bill recognizes that drug addicts cannot be dealt with punishment and argues that lifelong education on drug addiction must be required, including establishing specialized organizations and training professional manpower. This study attempted to suggest some policy implications for treatment of drug addicts and prevention of relapse. It is necessary for the government to promote conversion of recognition on drug crimes and build therapeutic systems, developing various treatment programs. With this legislation, it is expected that perception on drug addicts and drug offenses can be gradually changed from the subject of punishment to the subject of treatment in Korea.

      • KCI등재후보

        마약류 규제정책에 관한 연구

        박진실(Park Jin Sil) 중앙대학교 법학연구원 2014 法學論文集 Vol.38 No.2

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Handling narcotics has not been allowed in legal terms. In this regard, its violation is under criminal punishment. Although narcotics had been recognized historically from the primitive age for religious rites and medical uses, today, handling narcotics with harmful effects is strictly faced restrictions, different from alcohols and cigarettes. In 1953, the Korean Criminal Code regulated the punishment on Opium, which went through several steps of institutions and amendments on narcotics control laws. Now that 'the Control Laws related narcotic drugs' has come into effect to control drug substances uniformly. In cases of regulating drug substances, the need for joint international assistance has been tendered at previous times and international organizations established the systems to restrict the standard of drug substances. Throughout the international treaty, each country is to accommodate what has been designated as a drug related substance, and controls the whole classification of drugs. But one thing to note that each country regulates the level of restrictions differently depending on its circumstances, most countries customarily regulate uniformly about what had been classified as illegal drugs. Korea strictly regulates the drug related substances. According to references of handling from Prosecution offices, the rate of public trials of narcotic criminals is markedly higher than that of general criminals. This is due to the high recidivism rate in narcotic crimes and its criminal significance. The continuous on-going crackdown measure taken on illegal drugs does not help decrease the frequency of handling narcotics and cannot face the limitation on the theory of punishment rule. It is believed that turning-around to meet a new policy needs to overcome the boundary of the punishment theory. Studies have shown that the regulatory policy of narcotics in some countries indicate a step forward to decriminalizing the less harmful drug substances. Also it needs to review the potential of implementation of decriminalizing policies in Korea.

      • KCI등재

        상피성 난소암 환자에서 예후인자로서의 혈소판 증가증에 관한 연구

        박진실 ( Park Jin Sil ),이유석 ( Lee Yu Seog ),이규락 ( Lee Gyu Lag ),김영재 ( Kim Yeong Jae ),건호 ( Park Geon Ho ),김성희 ( Kim Seong Hui ),민수 ( Park Min Su ),조삼현 ( Jo Sam Hyeon ),김경태 ( Kim Gyeong Tae ) 대한산부인과학회 2003 Obstetrics & Gynecology Science Vol.46 No.10

        목적 : 본 연구에서는 상피성 난소암 환자에서 혈소판 증가증에 대한 빈도와 여러 가지 임상지표와의 연관성을 알아보고 예후인자로서의 의미와 생존율에 미치는 영향에 대하여 알아보고자 한다 연구 방법 : 1984년 1월 1일부터 2001년 12월 31일까지 만 18년 동안 한양대학병원 산부인과에 내원하여 종양 축소술 및 항암화학요법을 시행 받고 추적 조사를 하였던 183명의 상피성 난소암 환자를 대상으로 환자의 연령, 조직학적 형태, FIGO 병기, 조직 분 Objective : We tried to determine the relevance of thrombocytosis as a possible prognostic factor in patient with epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods : One hundred and eighty-three (183) patients with epithelial ovarian cancer had been surgically treated i

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