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Numerous studies on the design strategy for nanostructured electro-catalysts have been devoted to improve the utilization of Pt and thereby to reduce the use of Pt in HER such as core-shell and hollow structures. From this point of view, single-atom catalysts (SACs) could be the best candidates for meeting this goal because they offer the maximized number of surface exposed Pt atoms. However, surprisingly, research into understanding the role of support in the field of Pt SACs for HER is rarely found. By using tungsten oxide material and carbon as a support, we tried to unveil the effect of the support on a single-atom. The strategy proposed in this study can provide new insight to the single-atom catalyst research fields on enhancement of the utilization of the noble metal.
The repeated silica gel colum chromatographies of EtOAc fraction, showing anticonvulsant activity, obtained from MeOH extracts of Schizandra chinensis B. fruits led to isolation of a sesquiterpenoid, four lignans and a sterol glycoside. Their chemical structures were determined to be chamigrenal, gomisin A, gomisin H, gomisin N. schizandrin and daucosterol. Among them, schizandrin and daucosterol inhibited GABA degrative enzymes, succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase and succinic semialdehyde reductase, respectively. It is postulated that the schizandrin and daucosterol are able to elevate the neurotransmitter GABA levels in central nervous system by inhibitory action on GABA degrative enzymes and act as anticonvulsant drugs.
In this paper we develop a new approximate method for the analysis of cyclic queueing networks. with exponential servers and finite buffers. A transfer blocking is assumed for the blocking mechanism and a decomposition method is used for the analysis. The decomposition method in this study involves the following four steps: ⅰ)Decomposition of the original network into subsystems ⅱ)Analysis of subsystems ⅲ)Derivation of a set of equations to determine the unknown parameters ⅳ)Development of an algorithm to solve the set of equations. The population constraint of the cyclic network is taken into account by ensuring that the sum of the average queue lengths of the subsystems is equal to the number of customers in the network. To test the accuracy of the approximate method, the results obtained from the algorithm are commpared with those obtained by simulation. From these tests, we observe that the algorithm developed in this paper yields pretty accurate results.
Objectives : This study was performed to investigate the antineoplastic effect of ethanol extracts from Sanguisorbae Radix on cholangiocarcinoma cells that was established from biliary tract cancer tissue. Materials and Methods : Two cholangiocarcinoma cell lines, SNU-1079 and SNU-1196, were studied. The mRNA expression of Caspase 3, 8, 9, Bcl-2, Bax, P53, and P21 was examined by RT-PCR. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry and apoptosis by cell death detection ELISA kit. Results : Proliferation of SNU-1079 and SNU-1196 was inhibited by Sanguisorbae Radix treatment in a dose-dependent manner. All cells treated with Sanguisorbae Radix showed increased dose- and time-dependent apoptosis. The expression of caspase 3, 8, 9, p53, and p21 was increased in all cells after the treatment of Sanguisorbae Radix. The expression of Bcl-2 was decreased in SNU-1196 and Bax expression was increased in all cells after the treatment of Sanguisorbae Radix. Conclusions : These results suggest that Sanguisorbae Radix would be beneficial in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma.