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그간 한반도 전쟁억제와 지역의 평화와 안정 유지에 크게 이바지해온 한미동맹이 현재 새로운 도전요소들에 직면해 중대 기로에 서 있는 것은 모두가 지적하는 사실이다. 외부적 전략환경의 변화가 주된 요인이긴 하지만, 한국 국내적으로 한미동맹의 발전과 지속성을 보장할 수 있는 ‘국민적 합의‘의 뒷받침 문제는 보다 직접적인 관심을 요하는 사안이다. 최근 한국인의 대북인식 변화와 반미감정의 확대로 인해 한미동맹에 대한 우려가 어느 때보다도 높은 것이 사실이다. 더구나 우리가 공통의 위협이 부재한 상태에서 동맹이 유지될 수 없다는 전통적 동맹이론을 받아들일 경우, 한미동맹은 지속되기 힘들 것임은 분명하다. 만약 한미동맹이 끝내 사라질 위기에 놓인다면, 한국은 외부적인 위협에 대해 스스로의 안보를 보장할 수 있는 대안을 모색하도록 강요받게 될 것이다. 다만, 이러한 부분에 대해 한국 국민이 어떻게 생각하고 있는지 여부는 한미동맹의 지속가능성을 가늠해 볼 수 있는 지표이자 증거가 될 수 있다. 본 연구에서는 이러한 문제에 주목하고 시카고외교협회(CCFR)의 2006년도 세계여론조사 결과를 통해 한국의 취할 수 있는 이론적인 안보대안들이 국민 인식 속에 어떻게 투영되는가를 살펴 보았다. 결론적으로 말해, 한국 국민들이 한미동맹의 대안을 적극적으로 모색하고 있지 않다는 사실이 입증되었다. 유력한 안보대안으로 거론되는 동북아 다자안보나 중국과의 새로운 동맹 결성은 통계적 기법으로 검정한 결과, 의미 있는 가능성이 도출되지 않았다. 바로 이 사실 하나만으로도 한미동맹 위기론자들의 논리는 상당부분 사실과 거리가 멀거나 경험적인 뒷받침이 없음을 입증할 수 있었다. 다원화되고 시기적으로 분절된 양상을 보이는 여론조사의 지표를 가지고 한미동맹의 미래를 정확하게 예측해 낸다는 것은 불가능하다. 그렇지만, 우리는 이와 같은 국민 여론의 ‘온도'가 보여주는 정도와 방향성에 주목해야 할 필요가 있다. Over the half-century, the ROK-U.S. alliance has greatly contributed to deterring war on the Korean peninsula and to maintaining peace and stability in the Northeast Asian region Today, however, this once seemingly unbreakable alliance seems to stand at a crossroads as it now faces new challenges. Indeed, the fact that the alliance's external strategic environment has changed over the past years is the major cause of such challenges. Even so, the question of whether or not South Korea can domestically secure the 'national consensus' which can support and guarantee the development and continuity of the alliance calls for our immediate attention. Actually, the recent changes of perception toward North Korea and the emergence of anti-American sentiment among the South Korean public have deeply troubled the alliance advocates. As a result, their concern about the future of the alliance is higher than ever. Furthermore, traditional alliance theories suggest that an alliance cannot be maintained in the absence of a common threat. When we consider such theories, it becomes clear that both Seoul and Washington would find it difficult, if not impossible, to maintain their alliance relationship well into the future. Again, if we were to imagine a world in which the ROK-US alliance finally ceased to exist, South Korea would be compelled to search for a security alternative capable of ensuring its own security against external threats. Conversely, if the South Korean public opinion about this kind of possibility is sufficiently weak, we may safely assume that the alliance would firmly remain in the future. In other words, the public opinion can be regarded as an indicator or proof by which we can assess the durability of the alliance. This paper pays particular attention to this kind of alliance management problem and observes how the hypothetical security alternatives for South Korea are reflected in the public's perception by employing statistical analysis techniques. To perform a more reliable statistical analysis, this paper used the opinion survey data from Global Views 2006 in Korea Topline Report of the Chicago Council on Foreign Relations (CCFR). In conclusion, this paper's statistical analysis has proved that the South Korean public is not actively considering a security alternative to replace the current ROK-US alliance. In fact, many have readily assumed that establishing a multilateral security mechanism in Northeast Asia or forming a new alliance partnership with China is the most likely security alternative for South Korea. However, this paper found no meaningful statistical co-relations that might support the possibility of such security options. Perhaps, this result alone could falsify the proposition that the ROK-US alliance has lost its raison d' etre. Thus, it is proven that the so-called 'alliance in crisis' is either far from the truth or lacking empirical support. To be sure, precisely forecasting the future of the ROK-US alliance with opinion poll data is almost impossible, for opinion survey results and indicators tend to vary frequently and are fragmentedin nature. Nevertheless, this paper argues that the degree and directivity that the public opinion's 'temperature' shows are worthy of our attention for better managing the alliance.
Background/Aims: Although high-flux (HF) dialyzers with enhanced membrane permeability are widely used in current hemodialysis (HD) practice, urea kinetic modeling is still being applied to indicate the adequacy of both low-flux (LF) and HF HD. In comparison with urea (molecular weight, 60 Da) and β2-microglobulin (β2MG, 12 kDa), cystatin C (CyC, 13 kDa) is a larger molecule that has attractive features as a marker for assessing solute clearance. We postulated that CyC might be an alternative for indicating the clearance of middle molecules (MMs), especially with HF HD. Methods: Eighty-nine patients were divided into LF and HF groups. Using single pool urea kinetic modeling, the urea reduction ratio (URR) and equilibrated Kt/Vurea (eKt /Vurea) were calculated. The serum CyC concentrations were measured using particle-enhanced immunonephelometry. As indices of the middle molecular clearance, the reduction ratios of β2MG and CyC were calculated. Results: The β2MG reduction ratio (β2MGRR) and CyC reduction ratio (CyCRR) were higher in the HF group compared to the LF group. However, the URR and eKt/Vurea did not differ between the two groups. The CyCRR was significantly correlated with the eKt/Vurea and β2MGRR (r = 0.47 and 0.69, respectively, both p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Compared to the LF dialyzer, the HF dialyzer removed CyC and β2MG more efficiently. Unlike the β2MGRR, the CyCRR was correlated with the eKt/Vurea and β2MGRR. This study suggests a role for the CyCRR as an alternative indicator of the removal of MMs. (Korean J Intern Med 2010;25:77-81)
Labor relations traditionally have suffered from an identy crisis. In some schools they are taught as institutional economic courses or economic labor courses. Such courses rarely seem to address the managerial implications of labor relations. In ercent years the field of personnel and labor relations have experienced a resurgence of interest on part of managers. They are interested in how unions operate, how businesses become involved with labor unions, and how the negotiation and contract administraction process operates. thus, to managers, the understanding of the foundation of the trade unionism is necessary to see why the unions exists it does in its present form. This paper is based on the assumption that most managers need to have at least a basic understanding of the trade unionism as the theory of the labor movement. Trade unionism is divided into two major perspectives, as follows. Traditional uoionism is concerned with the ways in which unions are organized and seek to increase their security and power. Modern theories of unionism focus on the development of internal structure, administration, leadership, membership participation, and loyalty, all essential to the solidarity and unity which are the ultimate sources of the union`s power. Table-1 displays a brief summary of principal contribution to the trade unionism. Table-1 Summary of Trade Unionism _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Perspective Researcher Union Organlzing Variables ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Moral and ethical theories of Christian socialists, M. Mauris, moral and ethical values,beliefs. trade unionism C. Kingsley etc ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Revolutiontradition of trade K. Mark, F. Engels, V.I. Lenin structure variables unionism etc _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Psychological and defensive S.Perlman, A.S. Tannenbaum consciousness of opportunity, reaction of trade unionism etc scarcity, innovation _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Economoc foundation and pur- S.&B. Webb structure(economic) variables pose of trade unionism _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Democratic and political process N.W.Chamberlain,J.R.Comm- power relations of trade unionosm ons,J.S.Adams etc _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Industrial Labor System J.T.Dunlop etc the rule, actors, ideology, _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Oxford School/Pluralism H.A. Clegg, A. Flanders etc multivariates _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Behavioral Perspectives M.E. Gordon, T.A. Kochan etc behavioral determinants _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The distinction between the traditional and modern perspectives is identified as follows in Table-2. Table-2 Traditional & Modern Perspective in Unionism _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Dimension Traditional Perspective Modern Perspective _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Basic orientations Ideology-oriented System-oriented _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Organizing behavior Labor movement Management movement _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Goal-oriented Unidemensional Multidemensional _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Strategic variables Ideology, Rules Environment, Strategy _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ pose of trade unionism
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The Tree of apartment building is important to achieve a sustainable design for urban environment and to increase residental satisfaction. This study presents the solar shading effect of trees for multi-layer planting. The site for field test is located in Junju, Korea. Four main factors, daylight, illumination, temperature and relative humidity for planting, is tested for 3 months from June to August. Results from the field test are as following; The highest value to block the sunlight is at mean 553.1 W/m 2 in shading space under Prunus serrulata var. spontanea, that height is 8.3 m and crown diameter is 6.7 m and The lowest of that is at mean 253.8 W/m 2 under Malus prunifolia (willd.) Borkh. The difference of temperature between sunshine space and shade one ranged from 0.6°C to 6.7°C because of tree in Summer. The results shows that solar shading effect of trees can be used to estimate the change of plant growth condition for ground cover planting.
Background/Aims: Short hemofilter survival and anticoagulation-related life-threatening complications are major problems in systemic anticoagulation with heparin (SAH) for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). The present study examined if regional anticoagulation with citrate (RAC) using commercially available solutions can overcome the associated problems of SAH to produce economical benefits. Methods: Forty-six patients were assigned to receive SAH or RAC. We assessed the coagulation state, clinical outcomes, and adverse events. A Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate hemofilter life span. The economical benefit related to the prolonged hemofilter survival was examined on the basis of the average daily cost. Results: The mean age of patients was 66.5 ± 13.8 years and the majority were male (60.9%). While elective discontinuation was most common cause of early CRRT interruption in the RAC group (34.3%, p < 0.01), hemofilter clotting was most prevalent in the SAH group (82.2%, p < 0.01). The patient metabolic and electrolyte control and survival rate were not different between the two groups. When compared with the RAC group, the anticoagulation-associated bleeding was a major complication in the SAH group (15.0% vs. 61.5%, p < 0.01). Regional anticoagulated hemofilters displayed a significantly longer survival time than systemic anticoagulated hemofilters (59.5 ± 3.8 hr vs. 15.6 ± 1.3 hr, p < 0.01). Accordingly, the mean daily continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration costs in the RAC and SAH groups were $575 ± 268 and $1,209 ± 517, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusions: RAC prolonged hemofilter survival, displaying an economical benefit without severe adverse effects. The present study therefore demonstrates that RAC, using commercially available solutions, may be advantageous over SAH as a cost-effective treatment in CRRT.