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The French musical renaissance is usually dated from 1871, with the foundation at the end of the France-Prussian War of the National society for French Music. The situation is France in the first quarter of the twentieth century presents a mixture of tradition, impressionism, and anti-impressionism. Three main lines of development-interdependent, naturally-may be traced in the history of French Music from 1871 to the early year of the twentieth century. M. Ravel was a typical member of the so-called third generation of French musicians which came after the second generation which was led by such Composers as Faure´ and Debussy which in turn had succeeded Frank, Gounod and other first generation musicians. M. Ravel adopted some of the impressionist technique, this never overcome his basie affinity for the clean melodic contours, distinct rhythms, and firm structures of Classicism. His harmonies while complex and sophisticated, are functional, not only pictorial and impres sionistic like some of Debussy's. Especially he created Spanish style works and kept nostalgia for Spain through all his life affected strongly by his mother's blood. His most markedly impressionistic work for piano is the 'Jeux d' eau' which was composed 1901. 'Jeux de´au' resembles in form to classic Sonatas. But its introduction and use of themes are widely different from what are discernible in classic sonatas. The basic harmonies and sonic pattern determine more than the whole structure of the work does the basic characteristics of 'Jeux de´au'. To a large extent the task of Ravel was to work out new concepts of, or find an adequate substitute for, tonality and to reconcile with new harmonic idioms the other musical elements of instrumentation, counterpoint, rhythm, and form.
The investigation on the effects of Na/Si ratio and pH in the formation of mesoporous materials from amorphous silica dissolved by NaOH is described. The Na/Si ratio of synthesized gels was 0.5, 1, 2, respectively. They was produced by addition of HCl after 24hr of the synthesis, which lasted in 144 hours at 110℃. The effects of Na concentration on the synthesis at pH 10 and 11 were shown differently. While the products of which Na/Si ratio was over 2 had no mesopore with very low yield, mesoporous materials were formed as Na concentration decreased even though they were unstable at pH 11. Their adsorption/desorption isotherm showed hysteresis loop assigned to bottle-neck pore shape. Good mesoporous materials were synthesized from all gels regardless of Na concentration at pH 10.