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Marketing has had a short history of some 80 years since its beginning in 1900. One of the marketing controversies, which developed continuously in its research process, is "Broadening the Concetp of Marketing". The traditional conception of marketing holds that marketing is essentially a business activity directed toward meeting the needs of customers for goods and services, and that to expand its meaning beyond business is to dilute marketing's true purpose and effectiveness. In contrast, advocating broadening the concept of marketing, Kotler and Levy(1969) instead noted that "the choice facing those who manage nonbusiness organizations is not whether to market or not market, for no organization can aviod marketing. The choice is whether to do it well or poorly, and on this necessity the case for organizational marketing is basically founded." They further proposed that every organization produces a "product" including at least physical products, services, persons, organizations, and/or ideas. Equally, every organization has "consumer groups" broadly defind to include clients, trustees or directors, active publics, and general public. Despite earlier controversy, few marketers dispute the relevance of marketing to the management of nonprofit organizations. From a managerial standpoint, marketing concepts and tools can be applied to nonbusiness organizations as well as business organizations. Many articles followed in the 1970s, reporting applications of marketing techonology to such areas as college recruiting, fund raising, membership development, population problems, and religion. In 1975, a comprehensive textbook on marketing for nonprofit organizations became available and Nickels (1978) published a general marketing textbook giving equal attention to business and nonbusiness marketing. It appears that the age of marketing for nonprofit organizations has come. According to profit/nonprofit basis, all the organizations in a society can be divided into the two types of organizations; profit (business) organizations and nonprofit (nonbusiness) organizations. Different organizations as well as different goals and products may distinguish business, nonbusiness, and social marketing from each other. While business marketing normally involves a business organization in pursuit of economic profit by a business organization through the marketing of traditional goods and sevices, nonbusiness marketing is the application of marketing tools and concepts to nonbusiness problems and opportunities. Social marketing refers to the interrelationships between marketing and the societal system, including the impacts of business marketing on society as well as the application of marketing tools and concepts to social problems and opportunites. Both business and nonbusiness marketing are subconcepts of general marketing and the scope of social marketing is partially overlapping that of business and nonbusiness marketing. Even though the concepts and techniques in both business and nonbusiness marketing are basically the same, nonbusiness marketing has several uniqueness. Consequently, creativity and imagination are required to perceive how to apply the business marketing concepts to nonbusiness organizations. Nonbusiness marketing has following unique aspects compared with business marketing: ㆍThe objective of nonbusiness marketing is not just stimulating demand, but may be reducing or destroying it. ㆍNonbusiness organizations are often more dependent on several publics where as business is usually considered respobsible to first stockholders. ㆍThe nature of nonbusiness activity is more socially sensitive and coutroversal and, therefore, more subject to environmental constraints. ㆍThe sensitive nature of many nonbusiness "products" may make information planning and assembling more difficult than for business. ㆍProducts are more often intangible such as marketing of "ideas". ㆍNonbusiness marketing is much more than just nonbusiness advertising. ㆍThe "price" of nonbusiness products is often nonmonetary. ㆍperformance measures for control purposes may be more difficult to develop due to the absence of tangible sales data. Many nonbusiness organizations such as colleges, hospitals, and other institutions have been applying marketing concepts and tools to improve their organization goals. One of the successful cases is the family planning program of Lusiana state. According to Al-Ansary and Kramer, the success of the program is partly the result of: (1) the adoption of a consumer-oriented philosophy in service delivery (2) the recognition of marking as a process with many participants (3) the recognition of marketing as integrated effort involving the design of marketing mix (4) the use of a generic "human services" definition rather than a myopic "family planning" definition of the program's services, etc. The interesting thing about marketing is that all organization do it whether they know it or not. According to Kotler, the chief executives of nonbusiness organization can consider six approches to improve their marketing effectiveness: (1) marketing committee, (2) task forces, (3) marketing specialist firms, (4) marketing consultant, (5) marketing director, and (6) marketing vice president. The approches represent alternative ones to the introduction of marketing into nonprofit organizations rather than a rigid sequence of steps. Nonbusiness organizations would benefit from a more conscious awareness and practice of the marketing concept. It may lead them to place clients ahead of products and integrate their efforts to develop relevant want-satisfaction. Thus, the nonbusiness organizations in Korea should enhance their effectiveness through introduction of marketing concepts and techonology into them.
This research aimed to observe adolescent children’s use of time and to discover the parent-related factors that affect adolescent children’s use of time. The subjects included 2,092 fourth-grade elementary school students and 2,108 first-grade middle school students. We used data from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey. We tested sociodemographic factors, parents characteristics, and time usage, and we studied these factors using SPSS version 23.0; the results are as follows. Firstly, in the subordinate scope of the child-rearing attitude of parents, affection fourth-grade elementary school students(M = 1.83) and first-grade middle school students(M = 2.02). Inconsistency had an effect on fourth-grade elementary school students(M = 1.99),and first-grade middle school students(M = 2.12). Excessive expectations had an effect on fourth-grade elementary school students(M = 2.40) and first-grade middle school students(M = 2.55). Over-involvement had an effect on fourth-grade elementary school students(M = 2.68)and first-grade middle school students(M = 2.80). Finally, giving reasonable explanations had an effect on fourth-grade elementary school students(M = 1.51)and first-grade middle school students(M = 1.68). Secondly, in fourth-grade elementary school students(M = 463.35) and first-grade middle school students(M = 378.75). Further, studying hours during weekdays had an effect on fourth-grade elementary school students(M = 456.15) and first-grade middle school students(M = 460.86). Free activity hours during had an effect on fourth-grade elementary school students(M = 390.54) and first-grade middle school students(M = 387.11). Sleeping hours during holidays had an effect on fourth-grade elementary school students(M = 544.85) and first-grade middle school students (M = 511.74). Studying hours during holidays had an effect on fourth-grade elementary school students (M = 484.86) and first-grade middle school students (M = 511.74). Free activity hours during holidays had an effect on fourth-grade elementary school students(M = 518.68) and first-grade middle school students(M = 509.73). Thirdly, by observing the relative influence of related factors on adolescent children’s use of time, grade(β = -.284), gender(β = -.208), over-involvement(β = -.380), supervising(β = -.217), and (β = .243) in terms of the child-rearing attitudes of parents was found to affect study hours(F=2.595**). The education level of fathers(β = -.144) results in(β = 1.991) and longer free activity hours for children(F= 4.116***). This research can be used to study the influence of parents’child-rearing attitudes on adolescent children’s use of time and to suggest the role of parents in adolescents’ ability to manage time effectively using practical.
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Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that influence attitudes toward premarital cohabitation among unmarried adults. Factors included demographic variables, beliefs about the reasons for cohabitation, self-differentiation, and views about sex Methods: Data were collected from 238 unmarried adults in their 20s and early 30s in Seoul and the Kyeong-ki area. A frequency analysis, Chi-square test, and logistic regression were carried out using SPSS 23.0. Results: Adults who were religious were more likely to have negative attitudes toward cohabitation. When subjects believed that people cohabit because they want to test their relationship, answers were more approving about cohabitation. Gender and educational level were not significantly related to the attitudes of cohabitation. When subjects had a higher level of emotional cutoff, they were more likely to have negative attitudes toward cohabitation. More open sexual attitudes predicted positive attitudes toward cohabitation. Conclusions: The current study adds information to what is known about adult Korean attitudes toward cohabitation. Further investigations are needed. 본 연구는 미혼 성인남녀가 동거에 대해 가지는 긍정적 또는 부정적인 태도에 영향을 미치는 요인을 파악하고자하는 목적으로 실시되었다. 서울 및 경기지역에 거주하는 20-30대 미혼남녀 238명을 대상으로 인구사회학적 변인, 동거이유에 대한 인식, 자아분화, 그리고 성태도가 동거에 대한 태도에 미치는 영향력을 살펴보았다. 자료분석은 SPSS 23.0을 사용하여 빈도분석, 기술통계분석, 교차분석, 로지스틱 회귀분석을 이용하여 분석하였다. 연구결과 첫째, 연구대상자의 인구학적 변인에 따른 동거에 대한 태도 차이를 분석한 결과 종교를 가진 집단이 종교가 없는 집단에 비해 동거에 대해 부정적인 태도를 가진 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, 동거를 관계의 시험 차원에서 한다고 인식하는 경우, 동거를 찬성할 확률이 높은 반면, 동거를 하는 이유가 경제적 이유와 같은 편의성 때문이라고 인식하는 경우에는 동거에 반대할 확률이 높았다. 셋째, 개인의 자아분화 중 정서적 단절이 높을 때 동거에 대해 부정적인 태도를 가지고 있었다. 넷째, 대상자의 성의식이 개방적일수록 동거에 대해 긍정적인 태도를 가질 확률이 높았다. 다섯번째, 동거이유를 관계의 시험이라고 보는 인식이 동거에 긍정적인 태도를 가장 강하게 예측하였고, 자아분화 중 자아통합이 많이 이루어지거나, 성의식 중 순결을 중요시하는 경우, 동거에 대해 부정적인 태도를 가지고 있었다. 본 연구는 국내 선행연구가 동거 태도에 영향을 미치는 요인으로 인구사회학적 변인을 위주로 살펴본 것에서 확대하여, 그간 다루어지지 않았던 동거 이유에 대한 인식을 포함한 개인 내적인 변인을 포함하였다는 점에서 의의가 있다.
최근 고령화 사회에 접어들면서 유아용 기저귀뿐만 아니라 성인용 기저귀에 대한 수요 급증으로 위생용지시장은 2000년 이후 빠르게 성장하고 있다. 티슈와 같은 위생용지의 경우 피부에 직접 접촉하여 사용되는 만큼 소비자의 주관적인 촉감이 중요한 요소이다. 이러한 주관적인 촉감은 소프트니스(softness)로 평가되며 티슈의 소프트니스는 구매 결정에 크게 영향하는 요소로 작용된다. 본 연구진은 객관적 소프트니스 평가방법인 bulk softness와 surface softness의 측정 기술을 개발하였으며 주관적인 소프트니스와 높은 상관관계를 나타냄을 확인하였다. 그 중 surface softness가 bulk softness 보다 주관적인 소프트니스에 많은 영향을 나타내는 결과를 확인하였으며 본 연구에서는 위생용지의 softness 향상을 위한 원료의 처리조건, 배합비율 및 기타 첨가제 등이 softness에 미치는 영향에 대해 평가 하였다.