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Trip Generation Rate survey is to learn passenger, vehicle traffic and traffic characteristics due to different facility characteristics. It is used as a basic data for traffic generation charge, traffic demand prediction for facility supplement, and traffic demand management policy. The purpose of this study is to analyze to identify travel demand generation characteristics of different type of sites, and suggested improved method of deciding trip generation rates. The trip generation rate for each type of facility was estimated from trip generation unit rates and modified with composition of vehicle types, modal split and number of operating hours. The analysis resulted in one for office, 1.75 for general hospital, 3.23 for department store. Further survey and research in a regular base is recommended for the refinement of trip generation rates and adjustment factors to produce more equitable and consistent trip generation rates for diverse facilities. 키 워 드 교통유발계수(원단위), 국가교통DB, 다차원척도법Keywords TripGenerationRate,NationalTransport Database, MDS(Multidimensional Scaling Method)
The insertion of an epidural catheter into the epidural space to control postoperative pain is very common, as the technique is safe, effective and easy to perform. The numbers of documented problems are remarkably few, particularly those encountered during removal of the catheter. A 65-year-old man with stomach cancer was scheduled for a subtotal gastrectomy. The patient requested epidural analgesia for postoperative pain control. The patient was placed in the right decubitus position, and a 17-gauge Arrow Tuohy needle was inserted midline at the T12-L1 vertebral interspace, with the epidural space located using the loss-of-resistance technique. A 19-gauge Arrow Flextip PlusTM epidural catheter was inserted and advanced 5 cm into the epidural space, without difficulty or resistance. Two days after the administration of epidural analgesia, when the effects of local analgesics and opioid had worn off, an attempt was made to remove the catheter in the sitting position. Increased pressure was applied, but the catheter stretched and the wire reinforcement within the catheter began to uncoil. The removal of the epidural catheter was stopped at this point. After three hours, the patient was placed in the right lateral decubitus position, with his legs flexed to his chest, and another attempt to remove the catheter was successful. Herein, a case of difficulty in removing an obstinate epidural catheter is reported.
Background: Approximately one half of the patients with chronic daily headaches report a regular use of analgesics, making it an important issue for public health matters. However, factors contributing to the dependency and overuse of analgesics for chronic tension type headaches have been little understood. We investigated the role of chronic analgesics exposure in the natural course and clinical phenotype of headaches in patients with chronic tension type headaches. We also evaluated genetically determined innate factor that could exert a profound influence on a development of analgesics overuse using a serotonin transporter protein polymorphism and serotonergically related harm avoidance (HA) personality dimension. Methods: We analyzed the headache characteristics using a standardized questionnaire from 38 patients with chronic tension type headache with analgesics overuse (CTTH-AO), from 40 patients with chronic tension type headache without analgesics overuse (CTTH-NO) and from 100 healthy controls. We performed the serotonin transporter protein gene linked to the polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype, polymorphism analyses and investigated the serotonin related personality trait by evaluating the HA dimension in tri-dimensional personality questionnaires (TPQ). Results: We found a significantly higher pain intensity and disability score in patients with CTTH-AO. Most of the patients with CTTH-AO used analgesics compound containing caffeine for pain relief. S/S genotype frequency was significantly higher in patients with CTTH-AO than in those with CTTH-NO and controls. TPQ questionnaires showed significantly higher HA scores in both CTTH-AO and CTTH-NO than in controls. Conclusions: This suggests a serotonergic activity might be involved in development of analgesics overuse in chronic tension type headaches, and 5-HTTLPR might be one of the genetically contributing factors.
This study presents the research results of the BMT(Benchmark Model Test) simulations of the DECOVALEX-2019 project Task B. Task B named ‘Fault slip modelling’ is aiming at developing a numerical method to predict fault reactivation and the coupled hydro-mechanical behavior of fault. BMT scenario simulations of Task B were conducted to improve each numerical model of participating group by demonstrating the feasibility of reproducing the fault behavior induced by water injection. The BMT simulations consist of seven different conditions depending on injection pressure, fault properties and the hydro-mechanical coupling relations. TOUGH-FLAC simulator was used to reproduce the coupled hydro-mechanical process of fault slip. A coupling module to update the changes in hydrological properties and geometric features of the numerical mesh in the present study. We made modifications to the numerical model developed in Task B Step 1 to consider the changes in compressibility, Permeability and geometric features with hydraulic aperture of fault due to mechanical deformation. The effects of the storativity and transmissivity of the fault on the hydro-mechanical behavior such as the pressure distribution, injection rate, displacement and stress of the fault were examined, and the results of the previous step 1 simulation were updated using the modified numerical model. The simulation results indicate that the developed model can provide a reasonable prediction of the hydro-mechanical behavior related to fault reactivation. The numerical model will be enhanced by continuing interaction and collaboration with other research teams of DECOVALEX-2019 Task B and validated using the field experiment data in a further study. 본 논문에서는 국제공동연구 DECOVALEX-2019 프로젝트의 일환으로 수행된 Task B Benchmark Model Test(BMT)의 연구 결과를 소개하였다. Task B는 ‘Fault slip modelling’을 연구주제로 하며, 유체의 주입으로 인해 발생하는 단층의 재활성과 수리역학적 연계거동을 예측할 수 있는 해석기법을 개발하는 데에 목적이 있다. BMT 시나리오 해석은 각 참가팀들의 수치모델이 단층의 수리역학적 연동거동을 적절히 모사할 수 있는지 교차검증함으로써 각 해석코드의 완성도를 높이기 위하여 수행되었으며, 주입압 적용 조건, 단층 물성, 수리역학적 연동해석 조건 등에 따라 7개의 해석 모델로 이루어져 있다. 본연구에서는 TOUGH-FLAC 연동해석 기법을 이용하여, 역학적 변형으로 야기되는 단층의 수리적 물성변화와 간극의 기하학적 변화를 동시에 반영할 수 있는 수리역학적 커플링 모듈을 개발하였다. BMT 시나리오 해석을 위하여 Task B 1단계(Step 1) 연구에서 개발된 수치모델을 일부 수정하였고, 단층의 변형에 따른 압축률과 투수계수, 단층의 해석 메쉬의 변화가 해석에 반영될 수 있도록 하였다. 단층의 투수량계수와 저류계수가 단층 내 압력 분포, 주입수량, 변위, 응력 등 수리역학적 거동에 미치는 영향을 검토하였으며, 수정된 수치모델을 기수행된 1단계 연구에 적용하여 해석결과를 업데이트하였다. 해석 결과, 본 연구에서 개발한 해석기법이 물 주입으로 인한 단층의 거동을 합리적인 수준에서 재현할 수 있는 것으로 판단할 수 있었다. 본 연구의 해석모델은 Task B에 참여하는 국외 연구팀들과의 의견 교류와 워크숍을 통해 지속적으로 개선하는 한편, 향후 연구의 현장시험에 적용하여 타당성을 검증할 예정이다.