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공공부문의 효율성은 정부가 달성해야 할 주요 목표 중 하나이다. 이의 측정을 위해 2011년부터 개별 회계·기금 별 재무제표가 작성되고 있으며, 효율성 등을 증진하기 위해 각종 평가 제도들이 도입되어 오늘에 이르고 있다. 본 연구는 개별 회계·기금의 재무제표를 활용한 분석의 타당성, 추가로 현금주의 결산자료를 결합하여 사용할 때 자료의 처리, 자료포락분석을 활용할 경우 비음제약을 완화하고 시계열 분석을 실시 위한 기법 적용을 중심으로 회계·기금 별 효율성 분석 논의를 전개하고, 이 맥락에서 개별 평가제도들이 효율성 증진에 기여하고 있는지를 분석하고자 시도했다. 분석타당성 확보를 위한 문헌 검토는 부처, 프로그램 단위와 비교해 회계·기금별 효율성 분석이 가지는 특징 및 의미, 그리고 내부거래와 보전거래 처리에 있어 현금주의 결산자료와 발생주의 재무제표 자료의 혼합 사용 가능성, 기금운용평가와 위탁기금 대상 공공기관경영평가, 기업·책임운영기관특별회계 등 효율성에 영향을 미치는 제도요인을 중심으로 수행했다. 방법론적으로는 자료포락 분석을 기반으로 비음제약 완화를 위한 준지향방사 모형을 사용했다. 분석결과, 내부·보전거래 변수화 여부, 비음제약 처리 모형 도입 여부에 따라 효율성 점수 또는 순위가 차이가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 그리고 각종 평가제도들은 효율성 개선에 긍정적 영향과 부정적 영향을 모두 끼치는 것으로 나타났다.
Purpose: The object of this study was to attempt to assess the effects of microsurgical varicocelectomy in subclinical oligospermic or asthenospermic patients. Materials and Methods: Fourteen oligospermic or asthenospermic patients, with subclinical varicocele, were diagnosed by color Doppler ultrasound, between October 2001 and March 2004. All patients underwent an inguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy. Semen analyses were performed 4 months later, and compared with the preoperative data. Results: The mean patient and spouse ages were 31.9±2.09(range 29 to 36) and 29.9±1.85(range 27 to 33) years, respectively. Comparison of the semen parameter before and after surgery revealed significant improvement of the sperm count. The mean sperm count increased from 33.09±31.96 to 60.74±56.27 million/ml(p<0.05). There were no significant statistical differences in the pH, motility, morphology and viability on the semen analysis. 4 of the 14 patients achieved spontaneous pregnancy(28%) after 7 to 10 months, and 4 achieved pregnancy, with in vitro fertilization (28%), 10 to 30 months later. Conclusions: A microsurgical varicocelectomy in oligospermic or asthenospermic patients, with subclinical varicocele, significantly increased their sperm count. In infertile couples, with no specific problem other than subclinical varicocele, it is worth while performing a microsurgical varicocelectomy.
$quot; Five years Plan for Education Development in Korea$quot; was proposed by the Ministry of Education at March, 1999. During the plan years(1999∼2003), total education investment was estimated as 113 trillion Won(94.2 billion dollars equivalent) including student tuition and debt services. However, it could be criticized that it is still focused on the centralized and government driven reform agenda. We discussed that further localization of local education finance, and the privatization of government dependent private institutions are major policy issues in Korea. For the simplication of the tax system in Korea, the Ministry of Finance and Economy plan to abolish the education tax(earmarked for education expenditure) in 2000, but MOE could not agree with it. However, we recommend to discard the national education tax which is piggy backed on 11 tax types(both on the national and local taxes), and that building a new finance mechanism(much more localized one) would enhance further local accountability for local education, efficiency and equity at the same time. And the integration of local authority and the local education administration body could save more than 10% of current local education finance and those amount could be invested on the direct operating budget of the schools.
Objectives : The study aimed to investigate the effect of the COVID-19 epidemic on the mental health of elementary and middle school teachers, especially hwabyung, depression, and anxiety. Methods : The participants were teachers of three elementary schools and one middle school in Seoul. The survey was self-reported by online. The questionnaire included hwabyung scale, CES-D, and GAD-7. Results : The survey conducted from November 5th to December 3rd, 2020. A total number of 81 teachers replied to the survey. The hwabyung prevalence was 27.2% by hwabyung symptoms score. The mean hwabyung characteristics score was 30.10±10.55, the mean hwabyung symptoms score was 18.32±12.26. The depression prevalence was 44.4%, mean CES-D was 15.85±11.51. The anxiety prevalence was 43.2%, mean GAD-7 was 5.05±4.53. Conclusions : The survey showed that teachers had a high score of hwabyung, anxiety, and depression in the COVID-19 epidemic. The teachers were in need of help to improve their mental health.
본 연구에서는 A<sub>2</sub>O 공정을 적용하여 운영중인 하수처리시설의 운영데이타를 바탕으로 현재 운영중인 하수처리장의 효율성을 통계적기법을 이용하여 분석하였으며, GPS-X 공정모델프로그램을 활용하여 최적의 운영조건을 도출하였다. 하수처리장의 운영인자는 기초통계분석과 상관관계분석, 일원분산분석을 실시하였다. 기초통계 분석결과 연구대상 하수처리장의 유입량은 여름철에 가장 높게 분석되었으며, 다른 계절에 비해서 유입량의 변동성이 가장 크게 나타났다. 다원변량 분석의 결과 유출 T-N 및 NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>-N은 C/N비와 통계적으로 유의한 수준이 도출되지 않았다(p-value : > 0.05). A<sub>2</sub>O하수운영의 각 영향인자중에서 질소 성분의 제거는 유입 수온, HRT, SRT, DO에 주로 영향을 받고, BOD의 경우 모든 운영 인자, COD는 항목은 HRT, SRT, DO 운영인자에 영향을 받았다. GPS-X를 A<sub>2</sub>O 공정의 이용한 시뮬레이션에서 매개변수는 최대 침전 속도, 종속영양미생물 수율(무산소성), 인 반포화계수, 종속영양미생물 사멸율, 종속영양미생물 최대 성장률, 독립영양미생물 최대 성장률, 최대 침전 속도로 나타나 이러한 매개변수가 시뮬레이션에 주요 영향을 미치는 인자로 확인되었다. The efficiency of sewage treatment was ananlyzed selecting a sewage treatment plant in Gyeonggi-do where A<sub>2</sub>O process was applied. Statistical techniques based on the operation data of the sewage treatment were used. The main factors directly affecting the efficiency of the treatment process were analyzed using a GPS-X model. The correlation analysis and one-way ANOVA were performed. The T-N and NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>-N values of the effluent did not generate statistically significant level (p-value:>0.05) when compared with C/N ration values. Removel of nitrogen components form sewage treatment plants were affected by temperature, HRT, SRT and DO. In the case of BOD, all operating factors were affected, while COD was affecte by factors of HRT, STR and DO. In simulations using GPS-X, the parameters that greatly influence was included the maximum sedimentation rate, the dependent nutrient microbial yield (anoxic), the phosphorus saturation coefficient, the dependent nutrient microbial killing rate, the dependent nutrient microbial maximum growth rate, and the independent trophic microorganisms. The maximum growth rate and the maximum setting rate were identified.
Background: The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) as a human carcinogen in 2016. It is necessary to establish a health monitoring system for workers exposed to 1,2-DCP. We investigated the correlation between 1,2-DCP concentration in air and urine to determine whether it is appropriate to measure 1,2-DCP in urine as a biological exposure index (BEI). Methods: Twenty-seven workers from 3 manufacturing industries handling 1,2-DCP participated in this study. Airborne 1,2-DCP was collected by personal air. Urine samples were collected at the end of work and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Correlation analysis and simple regression analysis were performed to investigate the relationship between 1,2-DCP concentration in urine and air. Results: Pearson correlation coefficients between total 1,2-DCP in air and urine (uncorrected, creatinine-corrected) were 0.720 and 0.819, respectively. For urine samples analyzed within 2 weeks, the Spearman's rho of 1,2-DCP concentration in urine (uncorrected and creatinine-corrected) was 0.906 and 0.836, respectively. Simple regression analysis of 1,2-DCP in air and urinary 1,2-DCP concentrations within 2 weeks, which showed the highest correlation, revealed that the coefficient of determination of 1,2-DCP concentration in urine (uncorrected and creatinine-corrected) was 0.801 and 0.784, respectively. Conclusions: As a BEI for workers exposed to 1,2-DCP, urinary 1,2-DCP without creatinine correction better reflects the exposure levels of 1,2-DCP in air.
Water quality prediction is essential for the proper management of water supply systems. Increased suspended sediment concentration (SSC) has various effects on water supply systems such as increased treatment cost and consequently, there have been various efforts to develop a model for predicting SSC. However, SSC is affected by both the natural and anthropogenic environment, making it challenging to predict SSC. Recently, advanced machine learning models have increasingly been used for water quality prediction. This study developed an ensemble machine learning model to predict SSC using the XGBoost (XGB) algorithm. The observed discharge (Q) and SSC in two fields monitoring stations were used to develop the model. The input variables were clustered in two groups with low and high ranges of Q using the k-means clustering algorithm. Then each group of data was separately used to optimize XGB (Model 1). The model performance was compared with that of the XGB model using the entire data (Model 2). The models were evaluated by mean squared error-observation standard deviation ratio (RSR) and root mean squared error. The RSR were 0.51 and 0.57 in the two monitoring stations for Model 2, respectively, while the model performance improved to RSR 0.46 and 0.55, respectively, for Model 1.
Gastric adenocarcinoma may coexist with tumors of other histological types. The synchronous occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) has rarely been reported in the literature. It is still not known whether such an association represents an incidental coexistence or indicates a similar pathogenesis in the simultaneous development of tumors of different histological types. Here we report a case of an exoluminal GIST that was confused with a metastatic lymph node in early gastric cancer. 위 선암은 다른 조직학적 분류를 가지는 종양과 동시에 발생하는 경우가 있으며, 유암종, 점막연관림프종, 평활근육종, 위장관 기질종양 등을 동반할 수 있는 것으로 알려져 있다. 이러한 동시 발생하는 종양에 대해서는 드물게 보고하고 있으나 병태생리에 대해서는 아직 확립된 이론이 없어 이에 대한 연구가 필요하다. 저자들은 조기 위암의 병기 결정을 위해 시행한 복부전산단층촬영에서 작은그물막에 전이성 림프절과 감별이 필요한 종양 소견을 보여, 조기 위암에 대한 내시경 점막하 박리술 시행 후 복강경하 종양절제술 결과 관강외 위장관 기질종양으로 진단한 1예를 경험하였기에 문헌고찰과 함께 보고한다.