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본 연구에서는 식품안전 기능에 초점을 맞추어 식품안전관련 법령을 통해 중앙정부와 지방자치단체 간 사무 배분 실태를 분석하였다. 이를 위해, 법령으로부터 추출한 2,011개의 단위사무들을 사무성격별(내용, 목적, 형태)및 관장기관별(국가, 광역, 기초) 분류를 기준으로 분석하고, 재배분(이양, 법정수임, 환원) 검토사항 등을 파악하였다. 식품안전 법령의 단위사무들에서 나타나고 있는 사무 배분의 특징은 다음과 같다. 첫째, 국가사무와 지방사무의 비율은 6:4이다. 둘째, 국가사무와 지방사무 모두 집행・규제기능으로 분류된 사무들이 기획・비규제 기능으로 분류된 사무들보다 많았으며, 국가사무의 경우 규제기능으로 분류된 사무들의 비율이 지방사무의 경우보다 높았다. 셋째, 국가사무와 지방사무 모두, 직접처리 사무의 비중이 가장 높았으며, 중앙정부 소속 및 산하기관 처리 사무의 국가 사무 비중이 지방자치단체 소속 및 산하기관의 지방 사무 비중보다 높았다. 넷째, 전체 식품안전 사무 중 위임사무의 비중은 미미하였다. 본 연구결과는 식품안전 분야에서 정책을 결정하거나 계획을 수립하는 기능뿐만 아니라 집행기능에서도 중앙정부에게 권한이 집중되어 있음을 보여준다. 분석된 결과를 바탕으로 중앙-지방 간 식품안전 사무 배분을 위한 과제들을 자치분권 관점에서 논의하였다. This study focuses on food safety functions and analyzes the distribution of office work between the central government and local governments through food safety related laws and regulations. To do this, 2,011 unit affairs extracted from the statute are analyzed on the basis of the classifications(content, purpose, and form; national, regional, and local). The characteristics of the distribution of office work in the unit affairs of the food safety related acts are as follows. First, the ratio of national and local affairs is 6 : 4. Second, the number of affairs classified as enforcement and regulatory functions in both national and local administrations was higher than those classified as planning and non-regulatory functions. In the case of national administration, the percentage of affairs classified as regulatory functions was higher than that in local administration. Third, the proportion of direct affairs was the highest in both national and local administrations, and the proportion of the central government affiliated agency affairs in the national administration was higher than that in the local administration. Fourth, the proportion of delegated office work in total food safety affairs was insignificant. Based on the results of the analysis, we tried to find ways to strengthen the local authorities" power by centering on food safety function-oriented devolution and discussed limitations of the study.
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본 연구는 비동거가족 어머니가 미술치료를 경험하는 과정에서 자기수용을 어떻게 해나가는지를 탐구하고, 이 과정에서 미술치료사인 연구자의 삶에 어떤 의미를 주는지를 탐구하는데 목적이 있다. 연구 참여자는 결혼 후 남편의 직업특성상 임신과정부터 비동거가족이 되었으며, 9살과 18개월 된 두 딸과 함께 생활하는 비동거가족 어머니이다. 연구 참여자에게 2014년 3월부터 2014년 10월까지 주 1회, 총 18회기 미술치료를 실시하였고, 매 회기는 60분 정도 소요되었다. 본 연구는 비동거가족 어머니의 경험을 ‘있는 그대로' 이해하고자 ‘내러티브 탐구' 방법으로 분석하였으며 연구 참여자와 연구자의 삶을 함께 이야기하고 재구성하는 과정에서 삶의 의미와 가치를 이야기하고자 하였다. 연구 참여자는 미술치료 경험 속에서 자신의 불행이 ‘너 때문이야'라고 남편이나 자녀, 즉 타인을 탓하였으며, ‘아무도 날 돌봐주지 않았다'는 억울함을 표현하였다. 그리고 ‘나로 존재하고 싶다'는 자신과 만나는 경험을 하면서 ‘숲을 헤치고 세상과 조심스럽게 만날 준비가 되다'와 같이 타인과의 새로운 접촉을 시도하였다. 또한 ‘내 마음을 온전히 표현하다' 라는 용기로 ‘이제 엄마, 아내, 나로 설 수 있다'는 자기 수용을 경험하였다. 자신만의 안전한 치유적 환경이 된 ‘미술치료실'에서 ‘미술치료사'로부터 수용 받는 경험과 온전한 나로 표현한 ‘미술작품'으로 자신을 있는 그대로의 충분한 존재로 지각하게 되었다. The purpose of this study was to determine how a mother living in a non-cohabitating family learns self-acceptance during art therapy and also to understand how the process of art therapy affects the life of researcher, an art therapist. The participant of this study had been separated from her husband since her first pregnancy after marriage, due to the location of his work. She is a mother of non-cohabitating family with two daughters of 9 years and the other 18 months. From March to October, 2014, the researcher engaged her in an hour-long art therapy session once a week for a total of 18 sessions. In this study, a -“narrative inquiry method”- was used to comprehend her experiences, as the participant and researcher shared their life stories, talking about the meaning and value of life. Her stories described her relationships with her husband and children. She frequently used phrases such as “because of you” and “nobody cares about me.” Through this art therapy, she expressed her desires, stating, “I want to live my own life.” And she tried to confront others positively, saying, “I am ready to meet the world by bushwhacking.” Also, she took the courage to make decisions, stating, “I will clearly express myself.”, and she kept experiencing self-acceptance, saying, “I can stand as a mother and wife.” Experiencing being accepted by an -“arttherapist”- in a “therapy room” and making own artwork made her recognize herself as meaningful.
The effect of the intercepting ratios on the water quality improvement was simulated by using Finite Segment Method in a urban river where intercepting sewer under the ground and constructing sewage treatment plant are now being proceeded. To simulate variations of the water quality caused by river flows, rating curve at each gaging station was derived from measurements. Water quality data were from the existing observations at each key stations from 1990 to 1998, for 1999 and 2000 data we measured in creek and drainage ditch in addition to observation stations. It revealed that increasing the intercepting ratios improved the water quality.
The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of orange (Citrus auranthium) flesh (OF) and peel (OP) extracted with acetone, ethanol, and methanol. Antioxidant potential was examined by measuring total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (RSA), total radical-trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA). The comet assay was used to determine the protective effects of OF and OP against H2O2-induced DNA damage. TPC was highest in the acetone extracts of OF and OP. DPPH RSA was also higher in the acetone extracts than in the ethanol extracts. The DPPH RSA was highest in the acetone extracts of OF. The TRAP and ORAC values of the all extracts increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the TRAP assay, the acetone extracts of OF and OP had the lowest IC50 values. In the CAA assay, the methanol and acetone extracts of OP had the lowest IC50 values. All of the samples protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in human leukocytes, as measured by the comet assay, but the acetone extracts of OP had the strongest effect. These results suggest that acetone is the best solvent for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from OF and OP. Furthermore, the high antioxidant activity of OP, which is a by-product of orange processing, suggests that it can be used in nutraceutical and functional foods.
Pine needle juice (PNJ) was used to make sulgidduk with physiological activity for metabolic syndrome patients. The optimum formulation for sulgidduk was achieved using a response surface methodology. The models used to determine the optimum oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value and the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities had satisfactory R2 coefficients and were verified experimentally. However, the model for determining angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity was not significant. Two formulas, A (1.4% salt,30% sugar, and 1% PNJ) and B (1.5% salt, 21.4% sugar,and 1.4% PNJ) on the weight (100 g) of rice flour, were developed and their physiological activities were evaluated. The ORAC value was significantly higher in formula B (1.8 μM TE) than A (0.7 μM TE), while the ACE inhibitory activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were not significantly different in both formulas. Therefore, this study indicates the suitability of formula B for optimizing the physiological activity of sulgidduk.
Methanol extracts of 4 different colored (red,orange, yellow, and green) bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) were examined to (1) determine the total phenolic content (TPC), (2) compare the antioxidant activities, (3)assess the protective effects of extracts on H2O2-induced and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)-induced DNA damage using the Comet assay, and (4) examine the antiproliferative action of their extracts on HT-29 cells. Red and orange bell peppers had significantly higher levels of TPC than yellow or green bell peppers. Orange bell pepper exhibited the highest level of radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity, while green bell pepper exhibited the highest superoxide dismutase-like activity. These results suggest that the difference in antioxidant activities may depend on the kinds of antioxidant compounds related to the color of the pepper. It was found a significant negative correlation between TPC and radical scavenging activity inhibiting capacity (IC)50, and a significant positive corretation between TPC and total antioxidant activity. All extracts of bell pepper inhibited H2O2-induced and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-induced DNA damage in human leukocytes and showed potential toxicity on HT-29 cells. These findings suggest that the 4 different colored bell peppers may be useful as antioxidants and cancer prevention in food.
To asses the workload of industrial work, various methods have been used. Electro-physiological signals such as ECG and EMG also can be applied to the workload evaluation. The ECG is used to evaluate the whole-body workload, while the EMG is used to evaluate the partial workload of some muscles of a human body. In this study, two experiments were designed to know the effectiveness of the ECG and the EMG for the workload assesment. In the first experiment, seven subjects practiced pedalling on a fixed bicycle, then ECGs wee measured. In the second experiment, another six subjects exercised with 3㎏ and 5㎏ dumbbells, then EMGs were measured on the biceps brachii of the upper arm. The experimental results showed the ECG and the EMG were statistically significant between the rest state and the working state.
Due to the cost effectiveness, the computer-generated prototypes have been introduced in usability tests instead of real products. Recently, prototyping technologies enabled prototypes not only be looked as same as real products but also be responded as similar as those. However, few studies have shown that prototypes could produce the similar behaviors as real products. The objective of this study was to validate whether prototypes could replace real products as a test material in usability tests. Twelve female subjects participated in a between-subjects experiment with a microwave oven and a prototype of it. The results showed the subjects in the prototype condition had the larger task completion time and the greater number of buttons, suggesting the prototype was more difficult than the real product. Some causes of the differences were discussed and further research was suggested to diminish the differences.
Intrinsic type fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric(FFPI) sensors were developed for a bridge monitoring and the field test on a bridge was executed. Two FFPI sensors were attached on the bottom of the bridge and the outputs of the sensors were monitored when a vehicle ran on the bridge. The sensor outputs showed good sensitivity and capability as a deformation sensor for the bridge monitoring.