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The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the family system types of circumplex model and ego identity development in adolescence. The subjects of this study were 115 middle school students, 116 high school students, and 120 college students in Seoul. The types of family system were assessed by FACES Ⅱ and the ego identity of adolescents was assessed by Ego Identity Scale. The major findings of this study were as follows : A significant difference among family system types was found with the adolescents of 'balanced families' reporting higher ego identity than the other three family system types. College students reported the highest ego identity, followed by high school students, and middle school students. Females demonstrated higher ego identity than males.
Purpose: The Korea Medical Licensing Exam (KMLE) typically contains a large number of items. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in the cut score between evaluating all items of the exam and evaluating only some items whenconducting standard-setting. Methods: We divided the item sets that appeared on 3 recent KMLEs for the past 3 years into 4 subsets of each year of 25% each basedon their item content categories, discrimination index, and difficulty index. The entire panel of 15 members assessed all the items (360items, 100%) of the year 2017. In split-half set 1, each item set contained 184 (51%) items of year 2018 and each set from split-half set 2contained 182 (51%) items of the year 2019 using the same method. We used the modified Angoff, modified Ebel, and Hofstee methods in the standard-setting process. Results: Less than a 1% cut score difference was observed when the same method was used to stratify item subsets containing 25%,51%, or 100% of the entire set. When rating fewer items, higher rater reliability was observed. Conclusion: When the entire item set was divided into equivalent subsets, assessing the exam using a portion of the item set (90 out of360 items) yielded similar cut scores to those derived using the entire item set. There was a higher correlation between panelists' individual assessments and the overall assessments.
Fluctuating hearing loss and vertigo are the typical presentations of Meniere's disease. However,it is unusual that fluctuating hearing loss and vertigo are caused by vertebral artery occlusionor cerebral infarction. Here, we described the case of a 54-year-old male patient withhypertension and diabetes mellitus who presented with fluctuating hearing loss in his leftear and severe whirling-type dizziness without associated neurological signs or symptoms. Temporal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was normal. He was diagnosed with a possibleMeniere's disease and started conservative treatment. Eight years later, the patient developeddysarthria and left-side weakness. Brain MRI revealed right anterior medullary infarction,and cerebral angiography showed occlusion of the right vertebral artery. In thiscase, we attempted to review the initial imaging study and reported the characteristics ofthe case.
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Purpose: This school-level longitudinal study examined 7 years of clinical performance data to determine differences (effects) in students and annual changes within a school and between schools; examine how much their predictors (characteristics) influenced the variation in student performance; and calculate estimates of the schools' initial status and growth. Methods: A school-level longitudinal model was tested: level 1 (between students), level 2 (annual change within a school), and level 3 (between schools). The study sample comprised students who belonged to the CPX Consortium (n=5,283 for 2005~2008 and n=4,337 for 2009~2011). Results: Despite a difference between evaluation domains, the performance outcomes were related to individual large-effect differences and small-effect school-level differences. Physical examination, clinical courtesy, and patient education were strongly influenced by the school effect, whereas patient-physician interaction was not affected much. Conclusion: Student scores are influenced by the school effect (differences), and the predictors explain the variation in differences, depending on the evaluation domain.
Most medical colleges in Korea have been shifting from traditional education to outcome-based education, which is the general trend in medical education. The purpose of this study was to make some suggestions in light of the reality and challenges of student assessment in medical education from the perspective of outcome- based education. First, those who are responsible for student assessment should be diversified to include faculty, residents, students, and evaluation committee members. They need separate roles in educational evaluation, so evaluation competencies are required for them. Second, various methods for evaluation and score interpretation can be used for effective evaluation. We can adopt diagnostic, formative, and summative evaluation functionally, and the norm-referenced, criterion-referenced, growth-referenced, and ability-referenced evaluation based on criteria for score interpretation. Finally, various evaluation domains and test forms can be administered together in the common lectures in the medical school. We can test not only knowledge but also skills and attitudes, with diverse test forms such as supply and performance types.
To examine and identify the changing pattern of published articles in the otology literatureover the past several decades. We used a variety of search engines available throughPubMed.gov based on key words in the following categories: diagnosis, diagnostic tools,and therapeutic tools. The number of searchable key words increased from 1945 to thepresent. Overall, there has been a major shift in topics cover in the otological literature. Mostrecently, there has been significant increases in the following categories: age-related hearingloss, speech discrimination, and cochlear implantation. Based on this analysis, we believethese represent the areas of major research in the field of otology today. The presentstudy is a bibliometric analysis of the changing pattern of published articles using a newanalytic approach. The results identify the shifting topics of research in otology and mightbe helpful for future studies in Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.