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Thyroid hemiagenesis is a very rare abnormality, where one thyroid lobe fails to develop. Most patients diagnosed with the disease have associated thyroidal diseases. We report a 32-year-old female who presented with the left thyroid mass that had gradually increased in size over two years. Thyroid scan revealed the absence of right lobe and isthmus and a hypoactive nodule in the lower pole of left lobe. Ultrasonography confirmed the right lobe and the isthmus agenesis. The operative findings confirmed hemiagenesis of the right lobe and nodular hyperplasia in the left lobe. The purpose of this report is to present a case of nodular hyperplasia, where agenesis of the contralateral lobe was also observed.
Background and Objectives:Surfactant protein-A (SP-A) is a member of the collectin family, and plays an important role in the first-line airway defense. The purpose of study was to examine the expression of SP-A mRNA and protein in human salivary glands, and to investigate its up-regulation during inflammatory conditions of salivary glands. Materials and Method:Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed on salivary gland tissues from ten patients with chronic sialadenitis and ten samples of normal salivary gland tissue. The expression levels of SP-A to GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) transcripts were semi-quantified by densitometry. We also characterized the cellular localizations of SP-A protein immunohistochemically. Results:SP-A mRNA and protein were detected in normal and chronic sialadenitis glands. The expression levels of SP-A mRNA in salivary glands with chronic sialadenitis was significantly increased as compared with normal salivary glands. Immunohistochemical staining revealed SP-A immunoreactivity in the ductal epithelia of normal salivary glands and chronic sialadenitis, and stronger immunoreactivity was observed in chronic sialadenitis tissues. Conclusion:SP-A is present in the human salivary gland epithelium and is up-regulated during chronic sialadenitis. These results suggest that salivary gland SP-A may play an important role in the innate host defense of human salivary glands. (Korean J Otolaryngol 2006; 49:411-4)
Thyroid papilary microcarcinomas are smal (10< mm)clinically. Some patients with thyroid papillary microcarcinoma present palpable neck node metastasis, which lead to the diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer that had not initially been apparent. The central and ipsilateral compartments are frequently afected with lymph node metastasis of thyroid carcinoma and the posterior triangle may be involved also. However, the sub-mental and submandibular triangle are rarely involved. Here, we report a case of 57-year-old woman with a five-year history of o. Aspirated specimen of mass demonstrated malignant cells of papillary carcinoma. Surgical excision of metastatic lesions was folowed by total thyroidectomy, extended radical neck dissection, forearm free flap reconstruction and tracheostomy. Histological examinations confirmed that the patient had lymph node metastasis from papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid. (Korean J Otolaryngol 2004 ;47 :368-70)
Submucosal glands produce most of nasal mucous secretion which play an important role in airflow hydration, mucociliary transport, innate immunity and antimicrobial defense. However, excessive mucus secretion is related with pathophysiologic characteristics in several chronic inflammatory diseases such as chronic rhinosinusitis and allergic rhinitis. This review details the anatomy, physiology of submucosal gland in nose and summarized pathophysiologic relationship between the submucosal gland and nasal diseases. Korean J Otorhinolaryngol-Head Neck Surg 2014;57:73-7
Nasal polyposis is a multi-factorial disease associated with chronic inflammation of the paranasal sinuses. Myofibroblast differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation are involved in the pathogenesis of nasal polyposis. Epigenetics, DNA methylation, and chromatin modifications are critical for generating cellular diversity and for maintaining distinct gene expression profiles. Based on our recent study that evaluated the inhibitory effect of Trichostatin A on myofibroblast differentiation in nasal polyposis, we hypothesized that HDAC inhibition is associated with myofibroblast differentiation and extracellular matrix accumulation in nasal polyposis and suggested that Trischostatin A may be useful as an inhibitor of nasal polyp growth and thus has potential to be used as a novel treatment option for nasal polyposis. In this review, we present general concept of epigenetics and results of recent research that elucidate the role of epigenetics in the pathogenesis of nasal polyps.