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The purpose of this study is to provide the basic data for planning and designing Village Parks in Seoul in the future, which result from analyzing post-occupancy evaluation. For conducting this study, 10 Village Parks among 45, built between 1996 and 1997, were selected and analyzed. The results of this study are as follows. The degree of satisfaction of 10 Village Parks in Seoul has been evaluated on a scale of 10, to be a 6.68 average. This result means that the most respondents are satisfied with the existing Village Parks in Seoul. The correlation of the degree of satisfaction with major planning factors for 3 types of Village Parks shows that accessibility is the most important factor. As for future directions of planning and designing Village Parks, many kinds of sitting, leaning and resting place need to be provided. It is also necessary to improve the visual quality of the parks with various spatial elements. The research also shows that various facilities for people's use should be provided in Village Parks.
본 연구는 서울시 도시공원녹지의 최근 10년전 내외 통계현황 자료의 변천과정을 정리하면 결과는 다음과 같다. 공원녹지 정책지표 현황의 변화에서는 전체적으로 점진적인 증가함을 볼 수 있고, 기간별 주요 공원녹지 정책들이 특성있게 사업들을 전개하여 주도적으로 추진하여 가시적인 효과를 보이고 있지만, 시대별 주요정책들간의 유기적이고, 지속적인 연결이 되지 못하는 실정이다. 주요 조직부서 및 구성원 현황에서 연평균 변천률은 총 정규직 구성원의 시청은 줄고, 사업소는 증가를 나타났으며, 조직부서는 모두 증가를 보이는데, 업무처리 현대화로 인원수는 줄고, 업무 내용의 전문화, 구체화로 부서 숫자가 증가로 판단된다. 공원현황의 연평균 변천률, 공원률, 시설률, 공원계획 및 조성은 증가 하지만, 미조성면적 사유지 면적은 감소되고 있어 공원녹지 확충의 물리적인 변천은 긍정적인 효과를 볼 수 있고, 각각 점진적 증가하고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 가로수의 점차적으로 도시 환경에 잘 적응하는 다양한 수종으로 교체되고 있어 다양한 수종으로 교체되고 있으며, 지정보호수는 증가하고 있으나 적극적으로 노거수, 보호수, 회귀수등 보호가치가 있는 수종을 보호에 나서야 할 것으로 된다. 조경관련 조례는 총 4건으로 개정 회수는 서울특별시도시공원조례는 9회, 서울특별시 가로수조성 및 관리조례는 1회, 서울특별시 도시녹화 등에 관한 조례와 서울특별시 보호수 지정 및 관리에 관한 조례는 최근 제정되어 최근 가로경관과 문화자원으로서 보호수의 중요성을 반영되는 것으로 판단된다. 소관별 예산총괄 현황에서는 보면 매년 총 예산은 사회여건에 따라 증가추세에 있으나, 공원녹지에 대한 예산이 고루지 못하고 점차 감소추세인데, 쾌적한 환경과 기후온난화 대응책으로도 적극 장기적인 예산 수요가 절실하다. In this study various changes in statistical status data for the latest 10 years about park green belt of Seoul City are summarized as follows. With regard to change in park green belt policy data it could be observed that there was gradual increase in general. On the basis of each period major policy on park green belt was implemented with its unique features thus visible effect could be achieved. Nevertheless between major policies on the basis of period there was no organic and persistent linkage which was regretable. In terms of departments in organization and members of such organization and in the aspect of annual average rate of change it was shown in city hall rate of regular staffs in such departments was declined whereas such numbers in project parts were increased. Department related to organization showed overall increase. But due to modernization of business handling number of personnel was decreased however as contents of works became more professional and specific number of departments were increased. In terms of annual average rate of change for the parks there was increase in the aspect ratio of parks, facilities and park plans and park creation. But privately owned area where parks are not created is decreasing thus showing positive effect in physical change by expansion of park green belt. It showed gradual increase respectively. Road-side trees are gradually being replaced with kind of trees which adapt itself well to urban environment thus kinds of trees became more diverse. Number of trees for designated as protected trees are increasing. But it seemed there is need for more protected trees worthy of protection such as old and big trees, protected trees and rare trees etc. There were totally 4 rules related to landscaping. There were 9 times of revisions with Seoul City Urban Parks Rules and 1 time of revision with Seoul City Roadside Trees Cultivation and Management Rule. Recently there was enactment of Rule on Urban Afforestation of Seoul City and Designation and Management of Protected Trees thus it reflects importance of protected trees for landscape of roadside and as cultural assets. In terms of overall status of budget annually such budget is increasing thus showing impact of social milieu upon it but budget on park greenbelt is not even and its trend is declining downward. Thus long-term securing of more budget for pleasant environment and as countermeasure against global warming is essential.
In particular due to excessive pressure from mountaineers climbing mountains and overcrowded use and through concentrated rainfall width of paths were broadened and side-paths appeared resulting in damage of forest. Thus this author found out problems on the basis of damage patterns for the purpose of maintaining mountaineering paths in nature-friendly way. And this author presented measures for its improvement through fostering urban ecotypic forestation. As for methodology of study this author reviewed basic direction for urban ecotypic forestation plan through research of literature and have analysed practical problems in actual working execution and management. This author also found out alternatives for management of mountaineering paths for the mountains near Seoul regarding problems connected with rational direction at the time of designing and execution and management. This study is to seek alternatives for fostering and management for mountaineering paths through research of literature and attempt was made to present rational measures. As alternatives for management review was made from the aspect of designing, planning and execution and comprehensively work execution methods such as green belt type restoration work, foundation stabilization work, mountaineering path road surface pavement work and stairs work are compared.
Plants are the basis for sustainable green growth, and the value of existence and importance of trees including landscape Plants can`t be emphasized enough. Therefore, they are precious living things thriving in all sorts of public services, and continuous civil complaints for justifiable compensation of landscape Plants are filed. First, the standard formula of planting intervals according to production target specifications is calculated using root-collar caliper and diameter at breast height, and apply ① standard medium sized trees which have not yet reached commercialization [deciduous tree production goal (R(B) less than 6cm]= (target standard)= [target standard R(㎝)×15×0.7]. ②In case of commercialization( R6~R10)= [target standard R(㎝)×15±5%], ③In case of more than R12= [target standard R(㎝)×15×130%] shall be applied. In case of using diameter at breast height ④In case of commercialization(B6~B10)= [target standard B(㎝)×20×15±5%], ⑤In case of more than B12= [target standard B(㎝)×20×130%] shall be applied. Second, appraisal methods based on tree classification of compensation for loss are classified according to planted locations. ①landscape trees within a house=[price of arrival at the site+planting cost], ②landscape trees in places such as arboretum=[management technology of tress + relocation expenses considering scarcity of the trees ③landscape trees in a place of loads= [landscape tree production cost + work out added price. In case of producted landscape threes ④ landscape trees ready to be commercialized as sales loss.
In the treatise this author suggested measures for creation and management of small scale Biotop in megalopolis. Basic direction of plan for creating Biotop was researched through available literature. Actual problems related to work execution and management were analysed and rational measures at the time of design and ex post facto management were presented. Contents of research include status of ecological ponds, pond for dragonflies, ponds for frogs, ecological streams, its types and classification and design standard. Result of searching for measures for creating and managing Biotop based on study of above mentioned status and problems is as follows: When record of carrying out the projects for 4 years by Seoul City is reviewed it could be found that the scale of the project was about 89,700m2 of the target area of 7 parks inclusive of Namsan Park (around Chunil Mineral Water Spring) and ecological ponds, erection of observation decks and planting dietary plants. The required budget was about 1,814 million won. It is annually engaged in creating a city for symbiosis of man and organism through creating environment where variety of animals and plants can live together by creating small scale Biotop possible for improving and development of diversity of organism.
In order to have diagnosis of educational program for majoring and practical work ability through academia-industrial cooperation this author carried out survey by questionnaires on the level of satisfaction on Customized Training System which is being carried out by universities and colleges jointly with industry. After establishing mutual relationship for academia-industrial cooperation rate of employment of the students attending schools in majoring field during 2003~2006 which was main indicator for educational result was 53%. It could be observed that rate of employment has been improving gradually. Result of analysing level of satisfaction in participating in educational groups showed that solely in the areas of trainees group support for finding jobs, support to circles, materials and equipments and practice items field showed relatively higher level of satisfaction in terms of educational operation and support. In the sector of instructors group in the level of satisfaction technical exchange with industrial entities topped and it was sequentially followed by preparation for study with texts, practical activity and development of program which are items for supporting employment activity and field of educational support.
본 연구는 여러 시문과 옛 그림 속에 나타난 백운동8영과 12승경 등 백운동원림의 내경과 외경의 고찰을 통해 조망경관과 식재경관 등 백운동원림의 전통 조경적 특질을 검토함으로써 복원의 진정성 제고할 수 있는 자료를 도출하고자 하였다. 1. 백운동원림의 장소성은 백운사지(白雲寺址) 및 梁나라 도홍경(陶弘景)이 화양(華陽) 은거고사 그리고 원림입구의 白雲洞 각자에서 근원하고 있음이 확인되었다. 2. 백운동8영은 백운동유서기(白雲洞幽棲記)의 표제어를 그대로 차운하고 있으며, 백운동8영의 요소인 소나무·매화·대나무·난·연꽃·국화 그리고 영산홍은 관상학적 측면은 물론 의미경관요소로 지속적으로 원림의 내경을 구성하였던 조경 식물로 보인다. 3. 백운동12승경으로 볼 때, 약 1.6km 권역의 원경인 옥판봉을 외경으로, 산다경, 백매오, 홍옥폭, 풍단 등은 전이공간으로 설정한 것으로 파악된다. 한편, 초당과 정자를 비롯하여 국화, 모란, 영산홍, 왕대, 소나무 그리고 연못 등을 내경의 경관요소로 구성함으로써 백운동원림은 별서를 중심으로 구심적이며 다층적 경관구조를 갖추고 있었던 것으로 보인다. 4. 두 개의 방지(方池)가 곡수거로 연결되는데 상지는 크기 3.5m×4.5m 크기이고, 하지 또한 장방형에 크기 3.6m×5.7m로 실측되고 있으며, 서측을 흐르는 계곡수를 끌어 원내로 유도한 유로(流路)는 90°의 직각 형태를 보이고, 원내에서 총 5번의 굴절(屈折)을 이루는 곡수로 구성되어 있다. 5. 현재 유구가 남아있는 국내 대부분의 곡수거(曲水渠) 형태는 유선형인데 반하여 백운동의 곡수거는 반듯한 직선으로, 내원(內園)을 거의 장악하다시피 형태와 규모를 갖는 이채로운 발상과 디자인으로 주목된다. 백운동원림의 진정한 복원을 추진하기 위해서는 옥판봉을 비롯한 12승경 중 외경의 경물요소에 대한 점진적인 경관연출을 도모하기 위한 조망·관리적 배려가 수반되어야 할 것이다. This study is aiming to acquire data for enhancing genuineness of restoration through reviewing external and internal scenery of Baegun-dong Wonlim such as Baegun-dong 8 Objects of Scenery(pines, bamboos, chrysanthemum, orchid, maehwa blossom, magnolia, fiddle and crane) and 12 Scenic Spots and reviewing internal and external scenery of Baegun-dong Wonlim such as views and scenery for plantation. For Baegun-dong 8 Young which sang songs about scenic spots of Baegun-dong Wonlim it seemed that its head words were formed through borrowing rhyming words from caption of Baegun-dong Yuseogi(白雲洞幽棲記). Accordingly it seemed these scenery secured its status of Wonlim from the beginning. Particularly the words of fiddle and crane in 琴棋書畵(Geumgisuhha) implied that playing Komungo and brushwriting were firmly rooted as romantic pursuits of classical scholars of that time. In consideration of distance upto Okpanbong which is one of 12 scenic spots of Baegun-dong radius of outer circumference is estimated to be around 1.6km. From Okgpanbong, the epicenter, Sandagyeong, Baegokmae, Hongokpok and Pungdan etc. correspond to transitional space. And inner scenery was formed with hub of thatched cottages and bowers surrounded with chrysanthemums, poenies, rhododendron, Phyllostachys bambusoides, pines and upper and lower water paths. Thus it seemed there was scenic structure of centrifugal nature as well as of multiplicity. Forms of majority of water paths with residual structure found in the country have streamlined forms on the other hand Baegun-dong water paths have straight line which almost dominate inner gardens in terms of scale and forms thus revealing its extraordinary idea and design. In order to promote genuine restoration of Baegun-dong Wonlim it will be necessary to have consideration from standpoint of managing perspective to assure presentation of gradual scenery with elements of scenic objects for outer view among 12 Scenic Spots.
종로구 세종로 광화문광장 플라워 카펫(2,830m2, 17.6m*162m)은 국가의상징도로와 전통과 현재가 공존하는 삶이 묻어있는 광화문 연가(戀歌)로 표현되는 우리나라와 서울의 상징물인 태극기와 무궁화 꽃잎, 그리고 서울의 로고를 플라워-카펫으로 기본개념을 자수화단으로 설정하였다. 꽃을 감상할 수 있도록 플라워카펫 주변에 설치되어 있는 전망대 벽면에 플라워 카펫에 대한 설명 안내문을 설치하여 시민들이 플라워 카펫의 조성개념 및 배치 문양 등에 대하여도 쉽게 이해할 수 있도록 하였다. Flower carpet Gwangwhamun Plaza of Sejong-ro, Jongno-gu (2, 830m2, 17.6m*162m) for symbolic road of our country and National Flag of Korea, Taegukgi and petals of Rose of Sharon which are symbolic object of our country and Seoul described as Song of Love of Gwangwhamun where tradition and the present co-exist and Logo of Seoul are designed by embroidery flower garden as its basic concept. For appreciation of flowers at wall face of observatory around flower carpet explanation board is installed to facilitate easy understanding of concept for creating flower carpet and arrayed patterns etc.