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The purpose of this study was to develop the Depressed Mood Response style Questionnaire(DMRQ) and to examine its validity. This study was consulted to examine characters in a number of groups using different response styles and the influence of response style on the duration and the severity of depressive mood. The aim of study Ⅰ was to develop a scale to distinguish between functional and dysfunctional response style. Total eighty-item of preparatory questionnaire were selected from a number of response style questionnaires and were administered to 190 undergraduate students. This scale was consisted of problem solving response style, ruminative response style, mood avoidance response style, and mood regulation response style. The aim of study Ⅱ was to validate DMRQ by the study Ⅰ. As a result of the confirmatory factor analysis, it was fitted into four-factor model. As a result of the correlations analysis, the ruminative response style and the mood avoidance response style are correlated positively with depressed mood. The problem solving response style and the mood regulation response style are correlated negatively with depressed mood. As a result of the cluster analysis, the group using both rumination and mood avoidance response style shows significantly higher level of depressed mood, Somatization, Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Interpersonal Sensitivity than the low response group and the group using both problem solving and mood regulation response style. As a result of regression analysis after control the stress, the ruminative response style among those response styles explained the difference of depressed mood and mood regulation, problem solving, and mood avoidance response style didn't give any explanation. 본 연구에서는 우울 기분 반응양식 질문지를 제작하여 타당화하고, 서로 다른 반응양식을 사용하는 집단이 어떤 특성을 갖는지 그리고 각 반응양식이 우울지속에 어떤 영향을 미치는지를 알아보고자 하였다. 연구 Ⅰ에서는 총 80문항의 예비문항을 선정하여 문항분석을 통해 문제해결 반응양식, 반추 반응양식, 기분회피 반응양식, 기분조절 반응양식의 4요인을 가지며 총 40문항으로 구성된 우울 기분 반응양식 질문지를 제작하였다. 연구 Ⅱ에서는 294명의 대학생에게 제작한 질문지의 신뢰도와 타당도를 알아보았다. 확인적 요인분석 결과, 4요인 모형이 적합한 것으로 나타났다. 상관분석 결과, 반추와 기분회피 반응양식은 우울과 정적 상관을, 문제해결과 기분조절 반응양식은 우울과 부적 상관을 보였다. 군집분석 결과, 반추․기분회피 집단이 문제해결․기분조절 집단과 저 반응 집단에 비해 우울, 신체화, 불안, 강박 그리고 대인예민 증상의 수준이 유의미하게 높았다. 회귀분석 결과, 스트레스를 통제한 후에 반추 반응양식만이 우울 증상 변화량을 유의미하게 예측하였으며, 이 외의 반응양식은 우울 증상 변화량을 설명하지 못하였다.
A renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is known for its high propensity for early metastasis. Among the metastatic cancers of the head and neck, RCC is the third most common disease after breast cancer and lung cancer. Head and neck metastasis of RCC occurs mainly in the thyroid gland (36.6%), nose and sinus (9.1%), and lesions in the ear canal and temporal bone are very rare. Although extremely rare, metastatic malignancy in the breast, lung, prostate, kidney to the external auditory canal have been reported in the literature. We report a case of metastatic RCC of the left external auditory canal in a 78-year-old male patient who had experienced multiple organ metastasis after nephrectomy due to renal cell carcinoma.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to review our experience with the use of self-expandable metallic stents as the initial interventional management for acute malignant large-bowel obstruction. Methods: The records of 35 patients who underwent placement of a colonic stent for acute malignant obstruction at our institution between January 2003 and December 2004 were reviewed. Results: Stents were placed for palliation in 19 patients and as bridge to surgery in 16 patients. Technical success of stent placement was achieved in all patients (100%), but clinical failure occurred in two patients due to limited expansion of the metallic stent. One of them who had clinical failure underwent an emergency operation, and the other needed no further procedure because of his death. Complications occurred in 4 patients (12%), including one pelvic abscess associated with colon perforation, two minor bleedings, and one anal pain. All the patients in the bridge-to-surgery group underwent an elective colon resection without stoma. In the palliative group, stent reocclusion was observed in three patients during the follow-up (median: 65 days; range: 27~440 days), two of which were managed by reinsertion of a stent. In the remaining patients, the stent was patent until death or the last follow up date (median: 65 days). Conclusions: Placement of a self- expandable metallic stent is a safe and effective procedure for immediate decompression of acute malignant large- bowel obstruction. It provides a chance of elective surgery for patients with resectable disease, as well as relief of symptoms for those with unresectable disease.
With the recent increase in the demand for electric vehicles, it is necessary to identify the high current safety of automobile parts. Among the automobile parts, the EPDM parts required colored parts from the existing black; therefore, it was necessary to change the basic filler from carbon black to silica. The rubber used in automobile parts is flexible and exhibits basic characteristics of high strength and elongation. However, as the filler is changed to silica, its physical properties, such as tensile strength and elongation, are lower than those of the existing carbon black base. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the mechanical properties with the addition of the EPDM compound using silica as a base without degrading the physical properties of EPDM. In this study, an experiment based on the additive content was performed using the mixture experimental planning method to analyze the mechanical properties according to the additive type and mixing ratio of silica-based EPDM. The mixing ratio of the four additives was set using a simplex lattice design, and the tensile strength, elongation, modulus 300%, and permanent compression reduction rate were analyzed for mechanical characteristics, and rheometer experiments were performed for vulcanization characteristics. Through statistical analysis of the measured data, the main effects and interactions of the EPDM-blended rubber additives were analyzed. These results can be used to derive a mixing ratio of additives that satisfies the required characteristics of the EPDM compound.
Background and Purpose Stereopsis refers to the perception of depth and awareness of the distance of an object from the observer that results from the brain receiving visual stimuli from both eyes in combination. Patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD patients) typically experience problems with vision, eyeball movements, and visual perception due to degeneration of the cells that generate dopamine in the brain. We therefore hypothesized that stereopsis is affected more by visual cortical dysfunction in idiopathic PD than by retina and subcortical structural dysfunction. Methods We analyzed stereopsis in 12 PD patients and 7 healthy controls using a three-dimensional (3D) television (TV). Before allowing patients to watch TV, we examined their visual acuity and strabismus using the Titmus Stereo Fly Test, and evaluated their cognitive function using cognitive tests. The patients watched 3D and two-dimensional (2D) versions of a movie with an approximate duration of 17 minutes, and then completed a questionnaire about stereopsis. All subjects underwent brain F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positronemission tomography after watching the 3D version of the movie. One week later, subjects watched the 2D version of the same movie under the same conditions. Each scan was analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (version 8) software. Results The visual cortex was activated less in the PD patients than in the healthy controls when watching the 2D or 3D movie. However, there was no significant difference between watching 2D and 3D movies in the PD patients or healthy controls. Conclusions The lower activation of the primary visual cortex in PD patients suggests the presence of dysfunction of the visual cortex. In addition, there was less activation of the visual association cortex in PD patients when watching a 3D movie than in controls under the same conditions. This might be one reason why PD patients do not recognize real and dynamic stereopsis. These findings have clinical significance since they suggest that safety needs to be considered when making devices or programs using 3D or virtual reality for use by patients with various cerebral degenerative diseases
Background Alzheimer’s disease is a chronic neurodegenerative condition, mostly affecting the medial temporal lobe and associated neocortical structures. In this report, we present a rare clinical manifestation of this disease. Case Report A 61-year-old female with word finding difficulty and memory disturbances was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. Two years later, she complained of right homonymous hemianopia without optic ataxia, ocular apraxia, and simultagnosia. No findings other than parenchymal disease were apparent in magnetic resonance imaging and laboratory tests. Conclusions In this case, in a patient initially diagnosed with Alzheimer’s dementia with progressive disease, we found only homonymous hemianopia, without signs of Balint’s syndrome or Gerstmann’s syndrome. After careful investigation showing that Alzheimer’s dementia with visual symptom was not associated with parenchymal disease, we concluded a case of atypical variant of Alzheimer’s disease.
Background: A typical plank exercise (PE) strengthens the core muscles, stabilizes the spinal column, and provides stability around the pelvis and trunk when the trunk is aligned. However, because PE require that the hip joint be kept straight, they can activate the hamstring (HAM). Excessive HAM activation can induce tightness, which may cause low back pain. Therefore, it is necessary to explore PE methods that can minimize HAM activity while maximizing core muscle activity. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: This study included 30 healthy adults as subjects. We measured the activity of the HAM and the erector spinae (ES), rectus abdominis (RA), and external oblique (EO) muscles using surface electromyography during three PEs (typical PE, PE with balance pad, and PE with sling). Results: The RA, EO, and ES showed the highest muscular activity during PE with balance pad and the lowest during PE with sling; however, the differences were not significant. The HAM showed lower activity during PE with sling than during the other two PEs; however, these differences were also not significant. Conclusion: Although HAM activation was not significantly difference among PE positions, we should recognize altering activation of core and hamstring muscle according to PE postures.