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In America and Europe from the latter part of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, the planning ideologies of park system and greenbelts were made and these planning ideologies are called Green Network System. They are different in terms of the purpose, type and method, but they have common characteristics of encouraging order and amenity in cities based on the consecutive connection of green space, and of coping with the problems happening in cities. Just as the park system was made, centering around new America and greenbelts were developed to meet with the problems happening in large cities, the structural arrangement and the roles of greens should be different. However, this connection system of greens was oriented in the circumstances of America and Europe at that time so it has not been confirmed what sizes of cities it would be useful for. On the other hand, separately from the Green Network System, the theory of park arrangement is being developed. It intends to cope with deterioration of the living environment caused by overcrowded cities and with increase in the demands of public parks. It is based on the neighborhood unit and the science of human settlement. In addition, the theory of park arrangement is based on the effects of greens in use, rather than, in decoration so it encourages dispersion and hierarchical system of parks, having the human settlement as base. Consequently, the theory of park arrangement is influenced by the characteristics and the type of households, and it has a required area and planning unit. However, this theory has the right for walking and human scale as the basic unit so for the large parks that are beyond the human scale, the planning criteria are not clear. The theory of park arrangement, which is based on the neighborhood unit, may be useful for the cities with tens of thousands of residents, but it is partially applied for the cities with 500,000~1,000,000 residents. And further, in organizing the green system for the whole city, the theory of park arrangement can be ignored. As seen in the above, the existing arrangement theory has some problems: it is just for partial application; and it is not suitable for the size and the growing speed of cities. The greens in cities should be operated as the comprehensive system, but greenbelts and park arrangement have been studied separately so far. That`s why it is necessary to review again the existing arrangement theory.
도시가 발전하면서 사람들은 삶에 있어 정신적, 문화적 욕구의 충족에 더 많은 관심을 가지게 된다. 도시환경을 개선하고자 하는 요구는 과거에 비해 더욱 심화되었다. 조경 분야에서 외부 환경의 물리적 요소는 이러한 요구에 부응하는데 있어 중요한 역할을 한다. 일반적으로 외부 공간을 형성하는 주요한 골격은 토지, 식물, 정형적 요소 등이다. 도시생활에서 이용자가 향유하는 공간으로는 주로 자연이 우세한 자연적 공간, 인공적 요소가 가미된 자연적 공간, 인공성이 주가 되는 자연적 공간 등이 있다. 이러한 공간은 사람들이 자연과 접하며 휴식하고 만나고 담소를 나누는 장소가 된다. 외부 공간은 실용적인 기능뿐만이 아니라 시각적인 아름다움도 지녀야 한다. 최근 들어 조경디자인 분야에서 공간을 구성하는데 질 높은 다양한 재료들이 활용되고 있다. 그런데 도시공원을 보면 특히 바닥포장과 관련해서는 개선해야 할 부분이 많이 있다. 시대의 흐름 및 도시민의 요구에 부응하여 빠른 시일 내에 도시공원 바닥포장 디자인의 개선이 이루어져야 하고 재료 선정에 변화가 있어야 한다. 도시공원의 바닥포장은 이용자의 쾌적성, 안전성, 접근성 등에 영향을 준다. 도시공원 바닥포장의 디자인 개선에 관한 본 연구는 쾌적한 도시공원을 위해 필요로 하는 바닥포장의 조성에 대한 연구이다. 연구방법은 선유도, 서울숲, 월드컵공원의 현황을 조사하여 바닥포장과 관련된 문제의 요인과 유형을 분석하고, 문제를 해결하고 공간의 질을 높이기 위해 바닥포장 개선 방안을 연구하여 설계안을 제시하였다. 도시공원 바닥포장의 품질 개선을 도모하며, 향후 도시공원 바닥포장 디자인의 수준을 제고하는데 유용하게 활용될 수 있는 자료를 제공하는 것에 본 연구의 의의와 목적이 있다. 연구를 수행하기 위하여 도시공원 바닥포장에 대해 현황 조사 및 분석이 이루어졌다. 또한 연구 결과를 토대로 하여 바람직한 바닥포장 재료 및 색채를 선정하고 적절한 바닥포장 디자인의 변경안을 제시하였다. 도시공원 바닥포장의 디자인 변경이 요구되는 현황을 조사하고 그 원인을 분석하여 개선안을 제시한 본 연구의 내용은 이용자가 만족할 수 있는 쾌적하고 아름다운 도시공간을 조성하는데 도움이 될 것이다. As cities continue to develop, people desire to fulfil their mental and cultural desires. So the demand for improving the city environment is more palatable than ever. The `outer-space` physical element in landscape architecture has its own role to play in satisfying this demand. The general frame of `outer-space` is mostly based on land, plants, and formative factors, regardless of size, fixedness, or location. The space for leisure use is divided into three parts. The first is `natural space` including mountains, rivers, and seas. The second is `natural space with added artificial elements` such as parks and terraced land on the rivers, which are created to protect the natural space from probable damage and to make full use of the space as rest areas. The third is `purposeful space` such as squares and parks with environmental and human facilities. They are the spaces made for the purposes of resting, recreation, and/or indicating the border of inside or outside of buildings. The ideal function of the elements of outer space is not only providing beauty, but also playing an important role in determining the atmosphere of limited space like parks. With the rapidly changing social norm, the design period tends to get shorter and shorter, and the recent trend is to use materials with high quality and diversity. However, the design of pavement in city parks has not been remodeled. Great improvements to facility maintenance, repair work, and plant preservation in parks have been made, but the issue of remodelling pavement has hardly been considered. Given that the type of pavement can give comfort or stress to the people visiting parks, it plays an important role in park design. This study is to design and create surface pavement for improving the outdoor spatial quality of city parks. The specific goals and objectives of this study are: to develop design criteria for creating user-responsive outdoor space, based upon the research findings drawn from site survey and analysis focusing on the surface pavement in city parks; and to make specific design recommendations, if there is room for improvement, for improving the outdoor spatial quality of city parks. This research study focused on surface pavement in 3 city parks (Seonyu Island, Seoul Forest, World Cup Park) such as overall image, arrangement of pavement, design and pattern, material, and color. With this background, and with survey and analysis, this study will suggest design changes to pavement in order to make the public space of the city park more satisfying and comfortable to its users. Findings obtained from this research study could be used in the designing of future projects in order to get a better understanding of the needs of users. The changes in order to meet users` needs and to improve the spatial quality of the city parks should be implemented.
차세대(5G) 디스플레이의 발전으로 인하여 데이터 전송량이 점차 증가하므로, 신호전송이 빠른 대역대인 고주파 대역을 사용한다. 신호전송을 위한 회로는 동박과 폴리이미드 필름으로 이뤄진 유연동박적층판(FCCL)이 사용되는데, 고주파는 표면으로 신호가 흐르므로 두 소재 사이의 계면 조도를 낮춰 경로를 최소화하여야 한다. 그러나 저조도 동박을 사용하면 동박과 폴리이미드 수지와의 접착 강도가 떨어지게 되므로 이러한 문제점을 보완해야 한다. 본 연구에서는 동박과 접착력 향상을 위해 다양한 폴리이미드 구조를 설계하고, 아민계 실란 기능기를 도입한 폴리아믹산을 합성하였다. 다양한 구조의 폴리아믹산은 pyromellitic dianhydride(PMDA), 3,3"4,4"-biphenyltetracarboxylicdianhydride(BPDA), 4,4"-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphthalic anhydride(6FDA)와 m-tolidine(mTB), 2,2"-bis(trifluoromethyl)-[1,1"-biphenyl]-4,4"-diamine(TFMB) 등의 조합으로 합성하여, 이를 동박에 코팅하고 이미드화하여 FCCL을 제조하였다. 접착력에 대한 특성은 다양한 폴리이미드 구조에 따른 박리 강도 시험과 분리된 계면에 대한 AFM, SEM, 접촉각 측정으로 상관관계를 비교 해석하여 확인하였다. Since the development in mobile display requires high data transmission speed, there is a growing need in the development of flexible copper clad laminate (FCCL) for flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) that has a high signal propagation at high frequency range. The circuit for signal transmission uses FCCL which is composed of copper foil and polyimide film. The surface roughness of copper foil has to be low to reduce the pathway of signal because the current flows near the surface at high frequency range. However, such low roughness of the copper foil results in poor adhesion to polyimide, which is a problem that should be addressed. In this study, the poly(amic acid)s (PAAs) having various structures were synthesized and the silane functional group was introduced as end group to investigate the enhancement in the adhesion with the copper metal. Various polyimide structures were synthesized with the combinations of pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA), 4,4"-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphthalic anhydride (6FDA), 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (TEOS), 3,3",4,4"-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), m-tolidine (mTB) and 2,2"-bis(trifluoromethyl) biphenyl-4,4"-diamine (TFDB). The synthesized PAAs were casted on the copper foil and were imidized for the fabrication of polyimide for FCCL. The adhesion strength between the polyimide and the copper foil was investigated by peel strength test and interfacial characteristics was investigated with AFM, SEM, FTIR and contact angle measurement.
일연은 『삼국유사』 <내물왕 김제상>을 통해 충과 열부에 대한 강한 의지를 표현했다고 할 수 있다. 하지만 그 파생 열부 설화는 사정이 좀 다르다. 박제상의 우국충절을 이야기 하기는 하지만 부인의 열부 행위에 더 초점이 맞춰져 있다. 이들 설화는 남편의 죽음을 인지한 부인이 스스로 목숨을 끊어 국가의 수호신이 되거나, 바위틈에 숨은 새가 되거나, 원한 맺힌 새가 된다. 바로 이점에 착안할 필요가 있다고 보인다. 『삼국유사』에는 박제상의 부인이 죽은 후 치술성모가 되었다고 기록하고 있다. 그에 반해 파생 열부 설화에서는 세 가지 경우로 나뉘어 나타난다. 즉, 『삼국유사』는 성스러운 결말만을 보여주고 있지만, 그 파생 열부 설화는 성스러운 결말과 비극적인 결말 등 다양한 모습으로 나타난다. 『삼국유사』 박제상 설화와 그 파생 열부 설화는 ‘신(神)이 된 열부형’과 ‘은을(隱乙)이 된 열부형’ 그리고 ‘원혼(寃魂)이 된 열부형’의 세 가지 유형을 가진다. 먼저 ‘신(神)이 된 열부형’은 『삼국유사』에 전하는 박제상 설화와 그 파생 열부 설화 1편이다. 이들 유형은 신화적 성격이 강하므로 현재에 이르러서는 현실성을 중요시하는 전승주체로 인해 그 전승력을 상실해가고 있다. ‘은을(隱乙)이 된 열부형’ 그리고 ‘원혼(寃魂)이 된 열부형’은 ‘치술령’, ‘은을암’의 전승물을 가졌으므로 여전히 그 전승력을 확보하고 있다. 열(烈)을 중시하던 과거에는 신화적 성격을 지닌 ‘신(神)이 된 열부형’이 전승력을 확보하였다면, 열(烈) 인식이 약화된 현재에는 전승물을 가진 전설적 성격의 ‘은을(隱乙)이 된 열부형’과 ‘원혼(寃魂)이 된 열부형’이 전승력을 확보하고 있다고 하겠다. 결국 『삼국유사』 속의 박제상 설화와 그 파생 열부설화는 전승주체의 ‘열(烈) 인식의 변화로 인해 전승력이 확보 혹은 상실해가고 있다고 하겠다. Ilyeon expressed his strong determination towards loyalty and virtuous women in "Naemulwang Kim Je-Sang" of Samgukyusa. Its derivative virtuous women tales are, however, in a different circumstance as they have a greater focus on the acts of Park Je-sang's wife than his patriotism and loyalty. These tales state that the wife, who learns the death of her husband, becomes the nation's guardian, a bird hiding in the crack of a rock, or a bird with a deep grudge after committing suicide. Attention should be paid to these differences. While Samgukyusa merely records that Park Je-sang's wife became the holy mother of statesmanship after death, the derivative virtuous women tales show different endings for her. In other words, Samgukyusa presents only the sacred ending, whereas the derivative tales tell diverse endings including the sacred and tragic ones. The Park Je-sang’s tale of Samgukyusa and its derivative virtuous woman tales can categorized three types of virtuous women: virtuous women that became a god, "those that became a hiding bird, and those that became a revengeful spirit. The first category can be found in Park Je-sang’s tale of Samgukyusa and one of its derivative virtuous women tales. Since this type has a strong mythical nature, it has been losing its transmission power due to the subjects of transmission that place importance on reality in modern times. The second and last categories have a "pass of statesmanship" and "rock of a hiding bird," respectively; thus, they are still enjoying their transmission power. The tales "virtuous women that became a god" with mythical nature secured their transmission power in the past when they placed importance on virtue, and the tales of "virtuous women that became a hiding bird" and "those that became a revengeful spirit" with an object of transmission and legendary nature secure their transmission power in modern times as the awareness of virtue has weakened. These findings indicate that Park Je-sang’s tale of Samgukyusa and its derivative virtuous women tales have either secured or lost transmission power due to the changing perceptions of "virtue" on the part of the transmission subjects.
Japan`s earlier green zone system which has been based mainly on the Western planning theories has developed in two forms of parks system and greenbelts, but such a system failed due to high pressure and high costs regarding population development, administrative matters and lack of residents` understanding. Since the mid-1970s, Japan has been developing its own unique system by forming a consolidated structure of green zones. Characteristics emerging during such a developmental process, or characteristics of green zone planning which appear until formation of green zones, are short experience in connection with green zone planning, green zones having been arranged based on a ring-shaped green belts, the green zone system of urban districts having developed in closely connected with urban disaster prevention, special parks having been developed using landmarks and structure of green zones having been formed based on maintenance and preservation of green zones. An earlier plan, or a master plan for the green, appearing at the beginning of a formative period of green structure has characteristics that it promotes consolidation of parks and green zones and conformity with urban development and pursues systematic arrangement based on functions of green zones. However, many people have raised planning-related problems of how the results integrating functions of the green will form a system, as well as a practical problem of how to substantially securitize the green zones. To overcome these problems, basic plans for green zones which are now being promoted have prepared specific tools to implement the plans and pushed for conformity with related plans through rewriting and linking related laws. Considering above mentioned contents, history of Japan`s green zone planning development suggest three things. First, to promote green zone plans needs agreement and cooperation of residents. Second, we need special policies to realize them and to securitize the green. Third, clear ideologies and principles about green zone plans are necessary to successfully execute the plans.
Objectives: We got a good effect on one patient who was diagnosed as Osteoporotic kyphosis. Methods: We used Cox technique and acupuncture. The other treatments were herbal medication and physical therapy. We measured the angle of Lumbar, VAS(Visual Analog Scale) and ODI(Oswestry Disability Index). Results: The symptoms of the patient were low back pain and gait disturbance. After treatment, the gate was improved in walking time and distance. VAS score changed from 10 to 3, ODI score changed from 41 to 16 for 10weeks. Conclusions: We think that Cox technique and acupuncture is useful for Osteoporotic Kyphosis.
커뮤니케이션 연구가 본격적으로 이루어지기 시작한 1920년대 이래 주류를 형성해온 접근은 어떻게 하면 송신자의 의도를 정확히 수신자에게 전달하고 이를 전달받은 수신자가 정확히 해석하고 이해하도록 할 수 있는지에 주된 관심을 쏟아왔다. 다양한 접근들이 이에 대한 대안적 모델로 제시되기도 했지만 거의 대부분은 의미의 공유와 합의를 커뮤니케이션의 핵심적 요소로 삼고 있다는 점에서 레비나스가 말하는 서구철학의 주체중심적, 존재론적 전통에 속한다고 할 수 있다. 이러한 전통적 접근에서 이상적인 커뮤니케이션 모습은 왜곡 없는 정보, 지식, 의견, 정서, 감정의 공유로 설정되며, 커뮤니케이션의 핵심 문제는 어떻게 진정한 공유가 가능한가로 집중된다고 할 수 있다. 커뮤니케이션의 중심에는 항상 자아가 자리 잡고 있으며, 커뮤니케이션은 송신자의 정확한 메시지 작성/전달과 수신자의 정확한 재생/이해를 바탕으로 한 나의 의견의 확산과정인 것이다. 이러한 과정에서 타자는 설득의 대상으로서 나의 인식 공간에서만 의미를 가질 뿐이다. 레비나스는 이를 교정할 독특한 시각을 제공하였는데, 이 글은 그러한 가능성을 소개하기 위한 것이다. 레비나스의 타자철학의 내용을 개괄적으로 소개하고 그의 말함과 말해진 것의 구분이 커뮤니케이션 연구에 어떠한 함의를 줄 수 있는지 논의했다. Since the 1920’s when communication studies arose as an academic discipline, almost all the approaches that have comprised the main current have paid central attention to the ways in which the sources transmit their intentions correctly and the receivers interpret and comprehend the messages they received in accordance with the original meaning of the sources. This represents the conventional mainstream approach in communication studies. While there arose a variety of approaches against the approaches within the mainstream approach, these alternative approaches also have regarded the key elements of communication as sharing meaning and consensus, falling into the same category of what Levinas called the Greek tradition or ontological tradition which he reproached for its tendency of egocentrism, totalitarianism, tyranny and violence on differences. In setting the ideal form of communication as undistorted sharing of information, knowledge, opinion, and emotion, the traditional approach has focused on the question of how to render a true common sharing between the sources and receivers. In this approach, at the center of the communication process lies an ego or a subject, and communication is understood as a process of expanding my opinion based on precise production/transmission of messages by the sources and exact reception/comprehension of the messages received by the receivers. In this approach the Other has meaning only as an object of persuasion within the field of my (re)cognition. Levinas provided a unique perspective to correct this egocentric conception of communication. This paper aims to introduce the Levinas’ possibility for expanding perspectives on communication. After introducing the main points of Levisnas’ philosophy of the Other, this paper discussed the implications of Levinas’ distinction between the saying and the said, especially the saying as a practice of ethical language, for communication research.
Restless legs syndrome(RLS) is a neurological disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move legs to stop uncomfortable or odd sensations. We report a new approach to improve RLS using acupuncture and massage on iliopsoas Muscle.The patients who have RLS were treated by acupuncture and massage on iliopsoas Muscle.We measured 3~6 times IRLS(Korean Versoin of International Restless Legs Scale), VAS(visual analogue scale), and angle(between the legs and the table) during the treatment period. After treatment, RLS symptoms decreased, In case 1, IRLS changed 34 to 10, VAS changed 8 to 2, angle changed 20 to 5. In case 2, IRLS changed 22 to 12, VAS changed 10 to 5, angle changed 15 to 10. In case 3, IRLS changed 30 to 9, VAS changed 8 to 1, angle changed 25 to 5.Acupuncture and massage on iliopsoas muscle for RLS was effective. To effective acupuncture treatment for RLS, more research is needed.
Objective: This study was designed to examine the effects of stem bark extracts of Cornus walteri Wanger on the lipid lowering, anti-oxidative activity and concentration of proinflammatory cytokines were investigated in hyperlipidemic rat. Methods: Male rats weighing 195.21±5.85g fed high fat diet for 8 weeks and 40 rats(above 400g) were divided into 4 groups. Each of 10 rats was devided into a control group and experimental groups. We fed a control group of rats a basal diet and administered normal saline(100 ㎎/㎏, 1 time/1 day) for 4 weeks. And we fed each experimental group of rats Basal diet and administered an extract of Cornus walteri Wanger(100 ㎎/㎏, 200 ㎎/㎏, 300 ㎎/㎏, 1 time/1 day) for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed to determine their chemical composition. We measured lipid of plasma and liver, concentration of proinflammatory cytokines, anti-oxidative activity and gene expression. Results: 1. Concentration of plasma FFA showed a tendency to decrease in Cornus walteri Wanger ext. groups. Concentration of plasma TG showed a significantly decrement in all Cornus walteri Wanger ext. group than that of control group. 2. Concentration of plasma total cholesterol showed a significantly decrement in all Cornus walteri Wanger ext. group than that of control group. Concentration of plasma LDL-cholesterol showed a tendence to decrease in Cornus walteri Wanger ext. groups. Concentration of plasma HDL-cholesterol showed a significantly increment in the 300㎎/㎏ Cornus walteri Wanger ext. group. 3. Concentration of liver total cholesterol showed a tendence to decrease in Cornus walteri Wanger ext. groups. Concentration of liver TG showed a significantly decrement in all Cornus walteri Wanger ext. group than that of control group. 4. Concentration of plasma and liver TBARS showed a tendence to decrease in Cornus walteri Wanger ext. groups. 5. The values of GSH-Px, SOD and CAT activity showed a significantly increment in the 300 ㎎/㎏ Cornus walteri Wanger ext. group than that of control group. 6. The values of plasma AST and ALT activity showed no significantly different in all treatment groups. 7. Concentration of plasma IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α showed a tendency to decrease in the Cornus walteri Wanger ext. groups. However the concentration of IL-10 in the 200 and 300 ㎎/㎏ Cornus walteri Wanger ext. groups showed a significantly increment than that of control group. 8. Concentration of liver IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10 showed no significantly difference in among treatment groups. However concentration of IL-6 in the 200 and 300 ㎎/㎏ Cornus walteri Wanger ext. groups showed a significantly decrement than that of control group. 9. In the analysis of RT-PCR, gene expression of TNF-α, Apo-B, Apo-E and leptin in the Cornus walteri Wanger ext. groups showed a lower expression than that of control group. 10. The ratio of TNF-α, Apo-E and leptin expression per β-actin expression in the 200 and 300 ㎎/㎏ Cornus walteri Wanger ext. showed a significantly decrement than that of control group. The ratio of Apo-B expression per β-actin expression in the 300 ㎎/㎏ Cornus walteri Wanger ext. showed a significantly decrement than that of control group. Conclusions: According to above results, in lowering lipid effect, antioxidative activity and antiinflammatory effect, the Cornus walteri Wanger ext. gives positive effect.