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During the 19th and early 20th century the study on the history and culture of the Islamic world was one of the well-known subjects for scholars. One of the pioneers in the district of the historical study of the Islamic civilization was Martin Hartman n, a professor in Seminar fr Orientalische Sprachen in Berlin. His sociology of Islam was the outcome of his efforts to understand t h e civilizational development in the Islamic world. Carl Heinrich Becker, an Orientalist and minister of the Weimar Republic, also not on ly had a speciality in the Islamic economic history as well as in the development of the Islamic civilization. Their study of Islam was an atempt to understand the Islamic civilization in the scientific way. They tried to find the historical raw materials in the Oriental society and employed a positivistic m ethod in the analysis of them. Obviously they showed the tendency to admit other cultures as itself and went so far as to demonstrate their belief in the objectivity of their study. The attitude of Martin Hartmann and Heinrich Becker toward the Oriental was far from objective, nevertheless. Sometimes it was contradictory. Behind the facade of their effort to see the Islamic culture as it was lay their biased impression that the Orient was regressive. They argued that the Islamic civilization “went wrong” after the Renaissance and the Reformation, while the European civilization was based on the universal development of humanity. It is safe to say that their viewpoint of Islam was basically eurocentric. In their understanding of the Oriental society, they were not reluctant to reveal their pride in the German culture and the political interests of Germany. Therefore, they failed to avoid completely the position as the Europeans and Germans. We can find some persisting aspects of Orientalism in their viewpoint. 이 글은 19세기 후반 활동한 두 명의 독일 오리엔트학자들의 타문화로서 이슬람문화에 대한 인식을 분석의 대상으로 한다. 서구의 “학문적 체계와 문화적 제도”로서의 오리엔트학이 실은 서구인들의 식민담론으로 “오리엔탈리즘”의 실질적 생산, 재생산 역할을 담당해 왔음을 역설한 사이드의 연구이래 서구 학자들의 학술적 연구 역시도 비판적 분석의 대상이 되어 왔다. 이 글은 독일 오리엔트학의 전성기인 19세기 후반, 이슬람의 역사와 문화를 주로 연구한 오리엔트 학자 마틴 하르트만과 칼 하인리히 베그러나 본고에서 다룬 두 연구자들은 다른 여행자나 문학가들과는 달리 타문화 인식에 있어 엄격한 학문적 객관성을 요구하는 학술적 차원의 이슬람 문화이해를 시도하였다. 그들은 오리엔트를 실재하는 하나의 문화권으로 이해함으로써 독자적인 연구대상으로 삼았으며, 아울러 실증주의적 방법론에 입각하여 엄격한 객관성에 입각한 오리엔트 문화권 형성, 발전사를 추구하였다. 또한 이들은 제국주의자도 아니었다. 비록 시대적 배경으로 보건대 이들의 연구는 명백히 독일 제국주의 팽창이라는 시대적 상황 속에서 이루어진 것이었다. 그러나 이들은 오리엔트의 직접적 식민지화를 반대했으며, 이슬람 사회의 자생적 발전에 대한 희망을 가지고 있었다.그러나 그럼에도 불구하고 그들은 “결코 모든 선입견을 부숴 버릴 수 있는 천사도 담론201 6(2) 박용희 251아니었고, 다양한 방식으로 그들의 인종적, 종교적, 정치적 견해를 가지고 있었던 인간들”이었으며, 따라서 오리엔트사회를 바라보는 유럽중심적 세계관으로부터 자유로울 수 없었다. 그들은 오리엔트 사회를 역사적으로 형성되었고, 화려한 과거를 가지고 있으며, 독자적 발전의 길을 가는 사회로 인정하였으나, 역시 현실 오리엔트사회를 유럽사회와는 비교될 수 없는 후진적 상태로 인식하였다. 특히 이들에게는 세속화와 근대적 민족국가를 이룬 유럽에 비해 그렇지 못한 오리엔트 사회는 잘못된 길을 가고 있는, 따라서 근본적 개혁이 필요한 대상으로 인식되었다. 또한 독일의 제국주의에 대한 태도 역시 이들의 이슬람관을 규정하고 있는 것이었다. 특히 양자는 현실 이슬람 문화권의 문제를 다루기 시작했으며, 이것은 당시 독일의 제국주의적 팽창과 그로 인한 현지에 대한 관심의 증가가 그 직접적 원인이기도 했다. 따라서 이들은 이슬람문화권에서 독일의 이해관계를 결코 도외시 할 수 없다고 생각하였으며, 독일의 열강화 정책을 지지했다. 물론 이들은 열렬한 제국주의자들과는 달리 독일의 이슬람에서의 위치를 상업적 제국주의, 오리엔트의 문명화 사업을 담당할 자로 위치지움으로써 독일을 유일한 이슬람사회 근대화의 조력자라 인식했으며, 이를 유럽의 문화적 사명의 일환이라 이해했다. 그러나 이들의 연구가 비록 제국주의적 요구와 직접적으로 연결되어 있지 않았다 하더라도 그들이 항상 자신들의 작업을 독일민족의 이해와 연관시켜 이해하고 합리화하려 했다는 점은 명백하다. 이러한 생각은 명백히 독일의 제국주의 정책을 시대적 소명으로 생각하던 당시의 지배적 담론으로부터 이들이 자유롭지 못했다는 점을 드러내는 것이었다.
The purpose of this study was to investigate on the clothing life to 109 dwellersliving in Gadukdo. The clothing life was grouped into 4 factors;purchase, wearing, management, disposal. The results were as follows ; 1. 45.9% of the dwellers appropriated less than ten thousand won for a purchaseof clothes. The purchase behavior is irrational, 76.2% of the dwellers purchasedgarments under the necessity. 2. The reason of buying and wearing a ready- made clothes is not emotional Point of view but an economical price. 3. 81.7% of the dwellers were discontented with price and durability on ready-ma-de clothes. Purchasing ready-made clothes, they didn't concerned about indication ofquality . 4. 78.9% of the dwellers occasionally wore Korean costume on a holiday. 49.5%of the dwellers answered that they took no interest in fashion. 5. A supply rate of a washing machine is 7.3%, 80.7% of the dwellers usedlaundry soap because of their low price. 6. As a reason of disposal the clothing, it was worn-out. 35.8% of the dwellers saidso. Only 10.1% of the dwellers answered that the garments were behind the fashion. That showes a tendency to be opposite with city dwellers.
In this paper travel writings are treated as a representation and appropriation of other culture by tourists. By analyzing six Korean's travel writing it reveals that the Korean tourists showed the tendency to admit Chinese culture as an other culture and went so far as to demonstrate their sympathy to the Chinese and belief in the past and present of the Chinese history. And in an understanding of China their viewpoint was filled with the nationalistic emotionalism. Therefore, they remembered the activities of the Korean nationalists in China. But each tourist situation expresses a distinct range of the concerns with difference. What is evident is that the sexual differences is conducive to the heterogeneity of the Korean perception of China. Especially women paid attention to the seemingly trivial affairs such as everyday life of common people and the state of women in China.
A paleomagnetic investigation has been carried out for the Lower Triassic Donggo Formation exposed in the Danyang area on the Yeongnam Massif to constrain local and regional tectonic history of the Taebaeksan Zone, Korean Peninsula. Among a total of 201 samples from 18 sites of the Donggo Formation, the characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) components were obtained from 166 samples. Field tests such as tilt test and reversal test reveal that the ChRM of the Donggo Formation is of primary in origin. The Early Triassic paleomagnetic pole position calculated from the site-mean directions of the primary magnetization is at 40.7°N, 17.8°E (A95 = 5.3°). Comparison of the reliable paleomagnetic poles from the Danyang (this study), Taebaek, and Yemi areas in the Taebaeksan Zone reveals a regional division of the pole position, indicating the clockwise vertical-axis rotation of the Taebaek area by 47.2 ± 11.1° with respect to the Danyang and Yemi areas after the formation of the Pyeongan Supergroup. In addition, there is a significant relation between strike deviations and declination deviations with some flattening of the regression line in the southern Taebaeksan Zone. Thus, it is interpreted that the Pyeongan Supergroup in this region had a primary curvature at the timing of sedimentation and subsequently experienced post-Early Triassic oroclinal bending of approximately 47°.
The prototype of mold oscillator that uses a non-sinusoidal generator was modified using Inverse dynamics and Multi-body dynamics. We maintained a basic structure of the mold oscillator including the motor, the gear, the leaf-spring and the caster. To reduce the coupling effect, the non-sinusoidal generator was replaced by a hollow cylinder that had non-sinusoidal surface. The system parameters were obtained from previous research , and a new design of the connecting rod between the cylinder and the leaf spring was analyzed by sensitivity analysis. A definition of the detailed system component including gear mesh, and non-sinusoidal surface, Lagrange's equation, Fourier series, and Cam profile synthesis was used to define an equation of motion. The response of oscillating system was derived by a direct integration method. The model was simulated according a specific assumption for each component, and a control system corresponding to real operation was applied. Dynamic responses are displacement, velocity, and acceleration of each component. All responses from these simulations were analyzed in the time-frequency region by Fast Fourier transform. Using the model, sensitivity analysis about design variables was also executed about operating performance.
Image registration is concerned with the establishment of correspondence between images of the same scene with translational, rotational, and scaling differences. The estimated transformation parameters between images are very important information in the field of many applications. In this paper, we propose a shape matching scheme for finding correspondence points for images with various differences, Tranditional solutions to this area are unreliable for the rotational and schaling changes between images, and the feature extraction of partially occluded scene. To solve those problems, dominant points on digital curves are detected by scale-space filtering, and initial matching is performed by similarity measure of cumulative curvatures for dominant points. For initial matching segments pairs, optimal matching points are calculated using dynamic programming.Finally, transformation parameters are estimated.
Access to surgical care and essential anesthesia is an integral part of universal health coverage. Also, increasing access to surgical care depends on a parallel increase in access to safe anesthesia. Today, five billion people (more than twothirds of the world's population) still do not have adequate, quality surgery and anesthesia care at the right time. Therefore, the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists and the World Health Organization developed the International Standards for Safe Practice of Anesthesia. The standards include the following components, which are essential for the safety of patients undergoing surgical procedures: professional expertise, facilities and equipment, medications and intravenous fluids, monitoring, and anesthesia. In this article, it is emphasized that wherever and whenever possible, anesthesia should be provided, led, or overseen by an anesthesiologist. It is also strongly recommended that essential equipment is in place and adequate training to handle it safely has been provided. Unfortunately, some operating rooms of small hospitals and clinics does not meet the above standards. It may be difficult for each hospital to manage autonomously due to the lack of a unified checklist for essential standardized requirements. By introducing appropriate anesthesia safety standards in the operating rooms of small hospitals and surgery clinics, it will be possible to increase patient safety during surgery performed under general anesthesia, deep sedation, moderate sedation, or regional anesthesia. Through this process, it is expected that the mortality and morbidity rate of unexpected surgery patients can be minimized.