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본 연구는 서울특별시에 위치한 35m²의 도시지역권 근린공원인 ‘서울숲’을 ‘누구나 사용 가능한’ 유니버설디자인 관점에서 평가도구를 작성하여 현장평가를 실시하였다. 본 연구의 방법은 우선, 유니버설디자인 관점에서 ‘도시공원’ 평가를 위한 분석 틀을 작성하였다. 이를 위해 관련선행 연구와 현장조사를 통해서 도시공원의 평가대상 요소를 선정하였다. 그리고 유니버설디자인과 관련된 국내 법규 및 서울시·경기도 가이드라인 매뉴얼 등을 종합하여 각 평가 대상의 세부항목을 작성하였고, 유니버설디자인 연구자들의 고유한 프로세스 및 방법 등을 통합하여 최종 분석 틀을 구성하였다. 또한 작성된 평가도구의 정확성 여부 파악을 위해서 먼저 예비조사를 실시하여 도시공원에 맞도록 분석틀을 설정하였다. 연구 결과 서울숲에 가장 시급하게 도입되어야 할 부분은 첫째, 시각장애인들을 위한 점자블록이었다. 점자블록은 시각장애인들에게 정보를 주는 정보성의 항목이지만 경사로에 설치될 경우 안전하게 이용 할 수 있다. 따라서 안전성에도 포함되는 가장 중요한 요소이다. 보행로에 점자블록을 도입하는 통합적인 동선 관리가 필요하다. 둘째, 경사로의 경사각이 대부분 커서 이용자들이 불편함을 겪고 있었다. 곳곳에 급격한 경사도를 나타내는 표지판이 존재하였지만 우회로를 나타내는 세심한 안내판이 없었다. 따라서 안내판에 우회로를 지시해줌으로써 편리하게 이용할 수 있도록 사회적 약자를 위한 세심한 배려가 필요하다고 여겨진다. 본 연구는 최근 국제적으로 활발하게 적용하고 있는 유니버설디자인의 개념과 서울시 및 경기도의 유니버설디자인 방안을 토대로 연구를 위한 분석틀을 만들어 국내 최초로 서울숲의 유니버설디자인을 평가한 내용이다. 또한 그 결과를 바탕으로 유니버설디자인 관점에서의 문제점을 도출하고, 누구나 사용가능한 바람직한 도시공원의 조성방향을 제시하였다는데 그 의의가 있다. This research has initiated on-site research evaluation on ‘Seoul Forest’, a neighborhood city park sized 350,000m² square located in Seoul, by designing evaluation tools in terms of universal design. For the research, an analysis tool was built to evaluate the city park in the perspective of universal design. Factors for evaluation were carefully selected via advance and on-site researches. Detailed items for each evaluation were set through domestic code-of-conduct and manuals from Seoul & Gyeonggi-do cities which all are relevant to universal design, then the ultimate analysis tool was set by combining unique process and methodologies that are widely used by many universal design researchers. According to the research, it was the raised block for the blind that needs to be adopted for Seoul Forest. Raised block has been regarded as information item as it is offering information to the blind though it can also be classified as the safety item if the block is built on a slope way for safety purpose. Thus, an inclusive route management is needed by introducing raised blocks on sidewalks. Steep inclines are the most common issues adding discomforts on people in need. Although a few road signs indicating steep slopes were found in several places, thoughtful signs suggesting alternative routes were hard to be seen. Thus, careful considerations for vulnerable members are necessary in places like steep slopes and stairs by installing detour signs. This research made an initial approach in evaluating Seoul Forest with using analysis tools based on the universal design, a n approach widely spotlighted recently, and lessons learned from Seoul & Gyeonggi-do cases.
Objectives: We investigated the repeated-dose toxicity of Wenpitang-Hab-Wulingsan(WHW), a Korean traditional medicine prescribed with twelve herbs, which has been used for the treatment of renal disease. Methods: WHW extract prepared by GLP company. WHW was supplemented by gavage at 0, 100, 500 and 1000㎎/㎏/day for 13-week consecutive days. We recorded the clinical signs of toxicity, body weight, organ weights, hematology, gross and histological changes in target organs rats and clinical chemistry analysis for all rats. Results: WHW extract at all doses was shown no mortality or abnormal clinical signs in rats during at the observation period. Furthermore, there was no difference in body weight and food-take consumption, organ weight, gross pathological findings, and urine analysis among the groups of rats treated with different doses of WHW extract. The hematological analysis and clinical blood chemistry data were revealed no toxic effects from WHW-treated rats. Conclusions: The results suggest that WHW extract in rats is a wide margin of safety on a acute toxicity.
Objectives : To evaluate the safety of KOB, a polyherbal medicine for allergic rhinitis, we conducted a subchronic toxicology study, Methods : Dried extract of KOB(Lot. No. 11003, yield : 41.1%) was prepared from GLP company (Hanpoong Pharm & Food Co., Ltd). KOB was repeatedly administrated orally of male SD rats at daily dose levels of 500 (G2), 1250 (G3) and 5000 (G4) ㎎/㎏/day for 13 weeks. We recorded the clinical signs of toxicity, body weight, food intake/consumption, optometry, urine analysis, organ weights, hematology, and conducted serum biochemical analysis, necropsy, gross and histological changes in target organs of Sprague-Dawley rats, and clinical chemistry analysis, Results : Neither death nor any toxicological signs were obserbed in KOB at all doses of 500, 1250 and 5000 ㎎/㎏/day during the administration period for thirteen-week. Furthermore, there was no difference in body weight and food-take consumption, optometry, necropsy, organ weight, gross pathological findings, and urine analysis among the groups of rats treated with different doses of KOB, during at the observation period for thirteen-week. The hematological analysis and clinical blood chemistry data were revealed no toxic effects from repeated-dose administration of KOB in rats during the observation period, Conclusions : Based on these results, the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) of KOB was considered to be 5000 ㎎/㎏/day for male rats under these study conditions.
Objectives: Allergy is an immune dysfunction caused by degranulation from mast cells in the early phase of allergic disease including allergic rhinitis (AR). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Osterici Radix, roots of Ostericum koreanum Maximowicz in human mast cells and experimental allergic animal models. Methods: The anti-allergic effect of Osterici Radix water extract (NK-W) was investigated in human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells, and compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylactic response in rats and ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AR in mice. Animals were orally administrated with NK-W (10 and 50㎎/㎏) or anti-histamine drug, dosodium cromoglycate (50㎎/㎏), and then intraperitoneally injected with compound 48/80 (8㎎/㎏) or sensitized with 0.1% OVA into nasal. Animals were observed plasma histamine and histological changes of nasal mucosa. Also, mast cell degranulation and histamine production were determined in compound 48/80-stimulated HMC-1 cells. Results: NK-W inhibited compound 48/80-induced degranulation of mast cells and histamine releasing in HMC-1 cells. NK-W decreased mortality and serum histamine releasing in compound 48/80-induced anaphylatic rats in a dose-dependently manner. NK-W also inhibited serum histamine levels in OVA-induced AR mice and improved abnormal histological changes such as expansion of grandular cells and hypertrophy of epithelium in the nasal mucosa. These results indicate that Osterici Radix water extract suppress allergic response through downregulation of mast cell activation. Conclusions: This study suggests that a therapeutic potential of Osterici Radix as a source of anti-allergic agents for use in a number of allergic diseases.
Objectives: The present study was undertaken to determine whether the water extract of Achyranthis Radix, which is the roots of Achyranthes japonica (Achyranthis Radix, AR), is efficacious against collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1J mice. Methods: Mice were immunized with bovine type Ⅱ collagen and orally treated with AR-W (50 and 100㎎/㎏/bw) from days 21 to 42 after immunization. Arthritis was evaluated by arthritic score, histological examination of knee joint and serological markers such as TNF-a, PGE2 and anti-type II collagen (CⅡ)IgG. Results: The results showed that comparing with untreated CIA mice, treated with AR-W significantly suppressed the clinical score and joint tissue pathological damages, reduced the serum levels of TNF-a, PGE2 and anti-CⅡ IgG in CIA-mice. These results suggest that AR-W can effectively alleviate inflammatory response on CIA, and anti-inflammatoy of AR-W can be attributed, at least partially, to the inhibition of inflamamtory mediators, PGE2 and TNF-a, in CIA. Conclusions: This study suggests that AR-W has a therapeutic potential in inflammatory joint diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.