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Hematite (α-Fe2O3) film electrodes doped with 14 different metal cations are fabricated using one-step co-electrodeposition techniques and their photoelectrochemical (PEC) performances are compared in a 1 M NaOH electrolyte under AM 1.5 irradiation. Identical doping levels of Pt(II and IV), Ce(III), Cd(II), Al(III), and Sn(IV) at 5 at.% improve the PEC performance of hematite, whereas Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Ru(III), and Pd(II) reduce the performance. Doping with Ag(I), Cr(III), Ir(IV), and Au(III) have little effect on the performance. The doping effects of Pt(II), Cd(II), Ag(I), and Cr(III) are studied in greater detail using various surface analysis techniques (scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance) and electrochemical analysis techniques (Mott–Schottky and impedance) by varying the doping levels (0–10%). Metal doping increases the primary particle sizes of hematite from ca. 50 nm to 70–100 nm due to interparticle agglomeration, and shifts the binding energies of the O 1s bands in the XPS spectra. The energetics of the bare and doped hematite (bandgap, conduction, and valence band levels) are estimated from the spectral responses and Mott–Schottky analyses. Pt, Cd, and Ag increase the bandgap by 0.06 eV but Cr reduces it by 0.06 eV. All doped hematite electrodes have valence band levels positive (~1.1 V) of water oxidation. At optimal doping levels, Pt(8%) improves the PEC performance of hematite approximately 3.2 times, whereas Cd(2%) and Ag(5%) increase it around twofold and 60%, respectively. The different optimal doping levels are discussed in terms of the depletion layer, electrical conductivity, and energy levels. The enhanced PEC performance of the doped hematite electrodes are attributed primarily to the increased electrical conductivity.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
The purpose of this study was to develop culture materials for high school English learners according to the 2015 revised national English curriculum which emphasizes cultivating the global community competence. Prior to developing the materials, the needs of high school students and teachers were analyzed as a base study. Reflecting identified needs of the students and teachers, insufficient materials for teaching culture, the current study developed culture teaching materials based on the models of culture teaching put forward by Moran (2001) and Seelye (1993). The developed materials were evaluated by teachers using a modified McGrath’s (2002) materials evaluation checklist. The evaluation results showed that the developed materials gained high scores(McGrath’s rating scale 5.24/6) in terms of presenting learning activities related to leaning values and ideas of target cultures which helps learners strengthen the global community competence. Furthermore, the developed material scored highly(McGrath’s rating scale 5.84/6) in providing cultural activities that increased learners’ understanding of the target culture as well as its language.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
This study aims to look into the effects of formaldehyde and dusts removal in ecological zones, and it was based on ecological zones of the Heukseok subway station with the skylight in order to examine the degree of the effects. As the result, the formaldehyde concentration in the ecological zone and the zones 10m and 20m away from the ecological zone was around 20.7ppb, 21.2ppb and 26.8ppb and this showed the farther it was from ecological zones, the higher the concentration became. And the dusts concentration in the ecological zone and the zones 10m and 20m away from the ecological zone was around 18.0㎍/㎥, 19.2㎍/㎥, and 67.4㎍/㎥, and this showed the farther it was from ecological zones, the higher the concentration became.As to temperature and humidity, there was no big change according to ecological zones and distance by cooling and ventilation facilities that are now operating in subway stations. However, the humidity of ecological zones appeared highly as 3-4% from 11:30 a.m to 5:30 p.m when photosynthesis and transpiration occurs actively due to inflow of natural light. In addition, as the result of survey on daily variation of formaldehyde in ecological zones, the formaldehyde concentration was lowest during that time. Therefore, the ecological zones in underground spaces seem to make indoor air fresh by reducing formaldehyde and dusts and increasing humidity, and it seems to affect even 10m away space.
The Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) with stapes clip coupler placement at the stapes head has been used successfully to treat mixed hearing loss. Coupling between the floating mass transducer of the VSB and the stapes head is technically less demanding than incus vibroplasty and is more likely to generate a positive outcome without significantly changing residual hearing or resulting in medical or surgical complications. A 65-year-old man with bilateral mixed hearing loss and chronic otitis media underwent vibroplasty with a stapes clip coupler. Speech discrimination scores in both quiet and noise environments showed better functional gain with the VSB than with the use of a conventional hearing aid. The results of the present case show the feasibility of implanting a VSB with a stapes coupler in patients with mixed hearing loss due to chronic otitis media.
Salivary duct carcinoma is rare high grade adenocarcinoma, arising from larger excretory duct in major salivary gland, resembling the ductal carcinoma of the breast histologically. We report a case of salivary duct carcinoma of left parotid gland in which fine needle aspiration cytology was performed. Cytologic examination revealed 1) moderate cellularity, 2) flat sheets or three dimensional, tightly cohesive clusters on the necrotic background, 3) sometimes cribriform or papillary configuration, 4) polygonal or cuboidal cells with moderate anisonucleosis with abundant, granular and eosinophilic cytoplasm, 5) round to oval nuclei with irregular chromatin clumps, and 6) 1 or 2 inconspicuous nucleoli. Histologically, the tumor is mainly composed of cribriform intraductal component with central comedonecrosis, and small foci of infiltrating component including well differentiated ductal structures or irregular sheets in a desmoplastic stroma.
Fine needle aspiration cytology of the salivary lesions was performed on 221 patients at Soonchunhyang University Hospital for 10 years. Of 221 aspirates, 6 aspirates(2.7%) were inadequate, 116 cases(52.5%) were non-neoplastic lesions, 76(34.4%) cases were benign neoplasms and 23 cases(10.4%) were malignant neoplasms. The cytologic diagnoses could be correlated with histologic findings in 58 cases. FNAC correctly discriminated between neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions in fifty-seven lesions and failed in a case, and overall accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 98.3%, 98.0%, and 100.0%. FNAC correctly discriminated malignant neoplasms from benign neoplastic/nonneoplastic lesions in fifty-three cases and fatted in five cases, and overall accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 91.3%, 72.7%, and 95.7%. Among three false negative cases, two mucoepidermoid carcinomas were misdiagnosed as mucocele and benign neoplasm, and an acinic cell carcinoma were misdiagnosed as Warthin's tumor. Two false positive cases were a Warthin's tumor misdiagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma and a pleomorphic adenoma misinterpretated as suggestive of malignancy. In conclusion diagnostic accuracy of FNAC of salivary lesions is high, and the possibilities of low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma should be considered on hypocellular smears with mucoid or fluidy background.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among dementia knowledge, empathy, attitudes toward to dementia in caregivers of older adults with dementia. Data were collected 147 caregivers who worked in long term care centers. The self-report questionnaire was used for data analysis. SPSS Win. 21.0 was used to analyze data via descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, and multiple regression. The mean score of dementia knowledge was 20.18±3.58 out of 30, and the means of empathy was 82.12±9.68 out of 105 and the means of dementia attitudes was 96.45±13.72 out of 140. Attitudes toward dementia in caregivers differed significantly depending on their age, motivation of job. Attitudes also had a positive correlation with dementia knowledge and empathy. The most significant preditors of attitudes were empathy, job of motivation and age. These factors explained 33.0% of the variance for attitudes toward dementia. Above results suggest that dementia education programs depending on age, job of motivation, and empathy level is needed. 본 연구는 치매전문요양보호사의 치매에 대한 태도에 영향을 미치는 요인을 확인하여 치매돌봄서비스 질을 향상시킬 수 있는 근거자료를 마련하기 위한 서술적 조사연구이다. G시와 J도에 소재한 요양센터에 근무하는 치매전문요양보호사 147명을 대상으로 하였으며, 구조화된 설문지로 설문을 수집하였다. 수집된 자료는 SPSS Win 21.0을 이용하여, 기술통계, Pearson correlation coefficient, Multiple linear regression 등의 방법으로 분석하였다. 연구결과 치매지식 점수는 30점 만점에 평균 20.18±3.58점, 공감은 105점 만점에 평균 83.12±9.68점, 치매에 대한 태도는 140점 만점에 평균 96.45±13.72점이었다. 치매에 대한 태도는 연령, 직업동기에서 유의한 차이를 나타내었으며, 지식 및 공감과 모두 양의 상관관계가 있었다. 태도에 영향을 미치는 주요변인은 공감으로 설명력은 28.6%였다. 연구결과를 토대로 요양보호사의 연령, 동기, 공감에 따른 치매전문교육프로그램을 실시할 것을 제언한다.
A growing body of literature has shown the extensive reading (ER) approach to be effective on L2 learners’ vocabulary knowledge development. However, the ER approach has not been prioritized in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) settings. This classroom-based, quasi-experimental study compares the impact of ER on EFL learners’ vocabulary knowledge with that of conventional IR approach. A class of 38 students in a Korean EFL secondary setting participated in a one-semester ER course, while another class of 39 students participated in a one-semester IR course. The results from ANCOVA revealed that the ER approach enhances vocabulary knowledge significantly more than the IR approach. Moreover, by analyzing off-list words (low-frequency words that were unlikely to have been encountered outside of the intervention), the current study was able to minimize external influences, therefore arguably providing more convincing evidence of the positive impact of the ER approach compared to that of the IR approach.