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The purpose of this study is to analyze the structural properties of 100% wool fabrics knitted with various stitch types and to evaluate dimensional stability from shrinkage in wet cleaning and drying. Materials were weft-knitted from twenty-four different stitches with 7 gauge using a computerized flatbed knitting machine. Weight, thickness, density, and length were measured. A domestic washing machine and a tumble dryer were used for the shrinkage test. The results are as follows: Knitted fabrics were divided into 3 groups based on weight per unit area. Porous knits show light weight whilst milano, pintuck, rib stitches belong to the heaviest group. A positive correlation between weight and thickness was found and the same result was obtained for wale density and weight. Dimensional shrinkage of knitted fabrics was increased during repetitive wet cleaning and drying regardless of knit stitches. Especially, fabrics knitted with float, tuck, cable, and links & links stitches samples were contracted more than 15% in the first treatment whereas 2x1 rib stitch showed 1% shrinkage rate. Fisherman and milano stitches contracted in both course and wale direction with similar shrinkage rates. However, porous knits with float and tuck stitches shrank in course direction by 20% as well as cable samples contracted from 5% to 20% after repeated washing and drying. On the other hand, 30% and 15% contraction of wale direction occurred in orderly float and links & links stitches, respectively. Machine dried knits have a higher shrinkage rate than air-dried knits, but the drying method did not affect to the direction of contraction. In conclusion, variations of knit, tuck, and float stitches affect knit construction and dimensional stability from shrinkage in wet cleaning and drying of wool knitted fabrics.
The purpose of this study is to develop the fabric electronics-based safety protection smart athleisure fashion for night riding. Based on the characteristic analysis of products being used during night riding, the fabric LED Display and fabric type capacitive touch sensor to emphasize human friendliness were designed in detachable form through an intuitive interface to develop the smart athleisure fashion of prototype. This is meaningful in that it proposed smart Athleisure fashion products differentiated from existing products, considering the functional aspects based on fabric electronics that emphasized human friendliness and the design aspects of the customized system that can diversify design through exchange and compatibility with other Athleisure products due to detachable form. Follow-up study will focus on the improvement of textile sensor fit for the physical properties of a textile with reinforced wearability and flexibility by using Fabric Electronics and proposed customized smart fashion based on it. 본 연구는 야간 라이딩을 위한 패브릭 일렉트로닉스 기반의 안전 보호용 스마트 애슬레져 패션 개발 연구를 목적으로 하며 인간 친화성이 강화된 Fabric LED Display와 Fabric Capacitive touch sensor를 전도성 원사를 개발 및 활용하여 탈·부착 형태로 설계하여 구현하였다. 이러한 모듈의 탈·부착성은 다른 애슬레져 제품과 기능적·심미적인 요소를 교환 및 호환을 할 수 있도록 설계하여 기능뿐만 아니라 디자인의 다양화가 가능한 커스터마이즈 시스템으로 기존 제품들과 차별화된 스마트 애슬레져 패션 제품을 제안하였다는 점에서 연구의 의의가 있다. 후속 연구에서는 Fabric Electronics를 활용하여 착용성과 유연성이 강화된 직물의 물리적 속성에 적합한 직물센서를 개발하고 이를 활용한 커스터마이즈 스마트 패션을 제시할 예정이다.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate working mothers’ satisfaction with non-maternal infant care, social support, and the relationships thereof with variables including parenting efficacy. Methods: A total of 116 working mothers who had experiences of infant non-maternal care were recruited from online communities of working mothers, and 93 participants were ultimately included in this study. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires in March 2018. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficients were used for analysis. Results: Satisfaction with non-maternal care showed positive correlations with social support from others (r=0.52, p<0.001), and parenting efficacy (r=0.39, p<0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between social support from others and parenting efficacy (r=0.32, p=0.002). Satisfaction with non-maternal care was relatively high (86.27%), and it was highest when non-maternal care was provided by the maternal grandparents. The mean score for social support from others was 36.49±8.86. Conclusion: To increase satisfaction with non-maternal care, education for non-maternal caregivers and social support programs for working mothers are required.
This work investigated the effects of Allium ampeloprasum extract (AME) on testosterone synthesis in TM3 Leydig cells under hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)- induced oxidative stress. AME showed no increment of cell proliferation in the oxidatively stressed cells. Testosterone level lowered when the cells were treated with H2O2, but increased in the presence of AME. To determine the effect of AME on the testosterone biosynthetic pathway, we examined the expression level of the proteins involved in the synthesis or degradation of testosterone. The protein expression levels of CYP11A1, 3β-HSD2 and 17β-HSD3 (which are involved in testosterone synthesis) were decreased by H2O2 but increased by the AME treatment. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of 5α-reductase2 and aromatase (which are involved in testosterone degradation) were increased by H2O2 but decreased by the AME treatment. In conclusion, AME increased the testosterone level by increasing the expression of testosterone synthetase and decreasing the expression of the testosterone converting enzyme in TM3 Leydig cells under H2O2-induced oxidative stress. These results indicated that AME can alleviate andropause syndrome by restoring testosterone.
Obesity is classified as a low-grade chronic inflammatory disease. Obesity-induced inflammation is associated with the development of insulin resistance (IR). In this study, we investigated the effects of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum extract (MCE) on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced inflammation and IR in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as well as underlying mechanisms. Lipolysis was monitored by oil red O staining. Glucose uptake was measured by 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG). The production of cytokines and adiponectin was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Protein expression was measured using western blotting. IR was induced in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes by treatment with TNF-α. MCE treatment decreased lipolysis while increasing adiponectin production. MCE inhibited the production of pro- inflammatory cytokines such as interleukn (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, as well as the Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation. Additionally, MCE increased glucose uptake, prevented the protein expression of phosphorylated insulin receptor supstrate (IRS) and increased the protein expression of Glucose Transporter Type 4 (GLUT4) in a dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrate the potential of MCE in improving chronic inflammation and insulin sensitivity in obesity. Therefore, MCE can be used as a novel candidate for developing functional foods.
In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammation effect of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L var. capitata) fermented with a mixed culture of lactic acid bacteria (FCMC) and elucidated the underlying mechanism. The mixed culture included Lactobacillus plantarum and L. acidophilus. The cell viability of RAW264.7 macrophages were confirmed by MTT assay, and the results revealed no toxicity following treatment with FCMC at concentrations of up to 1,000 μg/mL. The anti-inflammatory effect of FCMC was evaluated by stimulating RAW264.7 macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce the production of inflammation-related factors, which were measured by an nitric oxide (NO) assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent, and Western blot. FCMC dose-dependently inhibited the production of NO, PGE2, and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages without any cytotoxicity. FCMC also reduced the protein expression levels of iNOS and COX-2 and inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and degradation of IκB in the LPS-stimulated cells. These results collectively suggest that FCMC may suppress the inflammatory reaction in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages by regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway and function as an anti-inflammatory material.