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        • 하천 무작위 현상의 확률 시뮬레이션을 위한 전산 모델 개발

          박석순,이용석 江原大學校 附設 環境硏究所 1993 環境硏究 Vol.10 No.-

          하천에서 예측 수질의 빈도분포, 평균값, 표준편차를 계산하기 위하여 STRESS(Segment Travel River Ecosystem Stochastic Simulation)모델을 개발하였다. 모델은 반응조 나열법(Cell-In-Series)에 몬테 카를로 기법(Monte Carlo Technique)을 적용하여 구성되었으며 수체 체류시간을 무작위로 발생시켰다. 반응계수의 무작위성은 체류시간 무작위성 포함으로 인하여 무시되었고 이는 확률모델 입력자료를 크게 감소시켰다. 모델은 상류, 점오염원, 비점오염원 조건들의 무작위성을 포함하고 있다. 모델에 시뮬레이션되는 수질은 부수성, 부영양성, 유탁성, 병원성이다. 모델은 개인용 컴퓨터에 실행 가능하며 EGA/VGA 칼라 그래픽이 활용되도록 설계되었다. 모델의 확률적 특성을 검토하기 위하여 한강 지류인 탄천에 적용하였으며 사례를 본 논문에 제시하였다. 본 연구에서 몬테 카를로 기법을 반응조 나열법의 체류시간에 적용하는 것은 자연 하천에서 나타나는 무작위 현상을 효과적으로 재현할 수 있는 것을 보여주었다. The Segment Travel River Ecosystem Stochastic Simulation [STRESS] model was developed to co-mpute the frequency distributions, the mean values, and the standard deviations of the predicted wa-ter qualities in natiral steams. The model was formulated by incorporting the Monte Carlo technique with the Cell-In-Series (CIS) approach, where the travel time of water segment is randomly genera-ted. Randomness in the rate constants is neglected by including the random travel time such that the amount of stochastic input data was significantly reduced. The model also considers randomness in the head water, point source, and non-point source conditions, The water qualities simulated in the model include saprobity, eutrophy, turbidity, and pathogenicity, STRESS can be run on personal com-puter and designed for implementation with EGA/VGA color graphic. A demonstration application for the Tancheon, a tributary of the Han River, was presented to validate the stochastic characteristics of the STRESS model. It was concluded from this study that the incorportion on the Monte Carlo te-chnique with the randomness in detention time of CIS system could effectively represent radom phenomena in natural streams.

        • KCI등재

          환경영향평가에 사용되는 컴퓨터 모델에 관한 연구 : 1:수질 모델 1:Water Quality Models

          박석순,나은혜 한국환경영향평가학회 2000 환경영향평가 Vol.9 No.1

          This paper presents a study of water quality model applications in environmental impact statements which were submitted during recent years in Korea. Most of the applications have reported that the development projects would have significant impacts on the water quality, especially, of streams and rivers. The water quality models, however, were hardly used as an impact prediction tool. Even in the cases where models were used, calibration and verification studies were not performed and thus the predicted results would not be reliable. These poor model applications in environmental impact assessment can be attributable to the fact that there were no available model application guidelines as well as no requirements by the review agency. In addition, the expected waste loads were improperly estimated in most cases, especially in non-point sources, and the predicted parameters were not good enough to understand water quality problems expected from the proposed plans. The effects of mitigation measures were not analyzed in most cases. Again, these can be attributed to no formal guidelines available for impact predictions until now. A brief guideline is described in this paper, including model selection, calibration and verification, impact prediction, and analysis of effects of mitigation measures. The results of this study indicate that the model application should be required to overcome the current improper predictions of environmental impacts and the guidelines should be developed in detail and provided.

        • 팔당수질정책의 당면과제와 추진방안

          박석순 김경민 김이형 안규홍 이창희 전상호 주현종 최계운 하성룡 이기영(Ki-Young Lee) 경기개발연구원 2007 위탁연구 Vol.2007 No.12

          This study intends to evaluate the current status of water quality management in the Lake Paldang and to suggest the role of Gyeonggi Province to improve the water quality. The characteristics of Lake Paldang and pollutant sources in the watershed should be examined in the scientific manner and the efficient strategies to control point and non-point pollutants need to be identified. Nine research issues, such as water intake, regulation and policy improvement, and water quality improvement were studied. The first chapter explains research goal and outline and other chapters introduce the research results regarding nine issues. The first issue (chapter 2) is to investigate feasibility of relocating current water intake sites to northern part of the Lake Paldang. The scenario that all three current intake sites move to the northern part was tested with computer model and the simulation result showed that intake water quality became improved comparing with current status. In chapter 3 the strategies to introduce mandatory Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) in upper Paldang watershed are evaluated. Also for the successful operation integrating management system instead of current separate management system are recommended. The third issue (chapter 4) is to evaluate the methods for indirect intake to diversify sources for water supply. Korean-style indirect intake was suggested and indirect intake such as bank filtration was considered as alternative to solve troubles between upstream residents and downstream residents. In chapter 5 feasibility for artificial wetland to improve water quality of Gyeongan Stream were examined. The HSPF model simulation and GIS were used to develop the suitability map of artificial wetland and scenarios with locating artificial wetlands in the study area results in obtaining better water quality in Gyeongan Stream. The fifth issue (chapter 6) is to suggest how to improve land use policy considering the Paldang water quality management. This study emphasized that connection (or comprehensive communication) among strategies for water quality management is necessary. Also in the water management planning stage enough discussion with other administrative organizations which control various management plans including urban planning, water supply planning, dam construction planning, water demand management planning, groundwater management planning, air quality improvement planning, are required. The sixth issue (chapter 7) is to investigate the effects of coordinated multi reservoir operation in terms of Paldang Lake's water quality. This study suggested that we would be able to estimate required instream flow based on initial water level of upper reservoir and determine available river discharge for improving water quality. The seventh issue being dealt in chapter 8 is to study strategy for town sewerage and private sewerage to improve Paldang water quality. This study suggested us to set optimal management system such as cooperating among water-associated departments in Gyeonggi Province, establishing the engineer organization to evaluate water treatment technique, and developing professional education program to improve water treatment technique. In chapter 9 strategies for non-point sources management associated with introducing TMDL were established. This study indicated various technical approaches as well as administrative approaches for non-point sources management under the conclusion that overlapping regulation in Paldang watershed is closely related with land use in the watershed. The ninth issue is to evaluate feasibility of strategies provided by Central Government for solving Paldang Lake's turbid-water and to suggest improvement. Several strategies for improving the lake's turbid water were suggested such as source control, land use change from high erodible farm to forest, financial incentive for residents who follow Government's guideline.

        • KCI등재
        • KCI등재

          과학적인 수질관리를 위한 오염총량관리제도의 추진 방안

          박석순,나은혜,나유미 한국환경영향평가학회 2001 환경영향평가 Vol.10 No.2

          This paper presents the policy directions of total maximum daily loads(TMDL), which was recently adopted in Korea, for scientific management of water quality. The basic principles of water quality management are also discussed in this paper, along with the TMDL policy in United States as well as the previous policy in Korea. We discussed several unreasonable points out of the previous approaches, such as regulation of all point sources with equal standards, negligence of an assimilative capacity of the receiving water, and emphasis only on drinking water supply, etc.. For successful applications of the TMDL policy in Korea, the following directions are suggested: 1) the unit drainage basin for each TMDL application should be given, 2) the water body where the water quality standards should be maintained, needs to be guided, 3) the water quality parameters of TMDL should be given, 4) the technical guidances should be given for applications of water quality models, and 5) the seasonal TMDL would be allowed. In order to maximize the benefits of the TMDL policy, the local governments would need to implement the following strategies: 1) the increment of an assimilative capacity of the receiving water, 2) the effective controls of the non-point source pollution, 3) the advanced treatment of the point sources, 4) application of system optimization techniques along with effluent trade, and 5) utilization of watershed management systems.

        • KCI등재

          미국 뉴저지주 매차포닉강의 수질 모델 연구 : QUAL2E 모델 적용 Application of QUAL2E Model

          박석순,크리스토퍼유클린 한국육수학회 1990 생태와 환경 Vol.23 No.2

          A comprehensive water quality model was constructed for the Matchaponix Brook, New Jersey, U.S.A., using the USEPA Enhanced Stream Quality Model (QUAL2E). The study area (15.3 km) was divided into eight (8) reaches. Each reach was then subdivided into uniform computational elements of 160.9 m. Field Data were obtained from two synoptic field sampling surveys performed during summer warm weather, low flow (September, 1989) and winter cold weather, low flow (November, 1989) conditions for three consecutive days. The model was calibrated to the September survey data and verified to the November survey data. The modeled water quality parameters included Dissolved Oxygen (DO), 5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD_5), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Organic Nitrogen (Org-N), Ammonia Nitrogen (NH₃-N), Nitrite Nitrogen (NO₂-N), Nitrate Nitrogen (NO₃-N), Total Organic Phosphorus (TOP), Total Dissolved Phosphorus (TDP), and Planktonic Algae as Chlorophyll-A (Chl-A) but selected parameters were displayed in this paper. The results displayed good agreement with the field measurements for both surveys in steady-state simulations.

        • KCI등재
        • KCI등재

          한반도 중부지역의 하천수질 통계 분석

          박석순,박배경 한국물환경학회 1995 한국물환경학회지 Vol.11 No.3

          Statistical analyses of water qualities were performed to compare the land use impacts on the receiving streams of the watersheds located in the central part of the Korean peninsula. The data were obtained from the three hundred seventy three tributaries in the watersheds including the Lower Han River, the South Branch of the Han River, the North Branch of the Han River, the Kyungan Stream, the Anseong Stream, the East Coastal Streams, and the West Coastal Streams. Triplicate samples were collected at each sampling station depending upon the flow conditions(mid, low, and high flow) from March to July 1992. The data were statistically analyzed by the multiple linear regression method, where explanatory and response variables were each land used types and receiving water qualities. The water quality parameters included in the statistical analyses were 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, anionic surfactants. and conductivity. The areal ratios of three different land use types were used as explanatory variables: urban area, agricultural area, and forest area. Regression coefficients were estimated for each water quality and the significances of coefficient values were tested using the t-test. Linear relationship between explanatory variables and response variable was also tested by the F-test. From this study, it was noted that receiving water qualities were significantly impacted by an urban area in all tested watersheds. The high values of regression coefficients were computed for the Lower Han River, the South Branch of the Han River, and the West Coastal Streams in the most water qualities. It was also recognized that urban area in the South Branch of the Han River and forest area in the West Coastal Streams shown unusual high values of regression coefficients in most water qualities. The result indicated that the regression method presented in this paper would be useful in comparing stream water qualities for multiple watersheds with multiple land use types.

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