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      • KCI등재

        논문(論文) : 러시아 주류정책의 변화, 1914-1932: 금주령에서 보드카 독점으로

        박상철 ( Sang Chul Park ) 대구사학회 2011 대구사학 Vol.103 No.-

        The Change of Russian Alcohol Policy, 1914-1932 Park, Sang-chul [Abstract] The Russian government, at beginning of the First World War, issued prohibition law to avoid anarchy and disorganization of military mobilization and responding to the public opinions of educated society that had criticized excessive financial dependance of vodka monopoly. And the Bolsheviks, after the seize of power in October, 1917, continued anti-alcohol policies. The Soviet communists, regarding popular drinking practices as ``vestiges of capitalism`` or ``social diseases,`` tried to correct it with various legal and administrative measures, cultural and propaganda activities. But this meant a direct attack on popular way of life and cultural values contained in it. Therefore, people`s major response to it was the production and consumption of moonshine. In 1920s, in context of fierce power struggle, Stalin and others asserted to resume and expand the production of the state vodka in order to suppress growing moonshine industry and to accumulate capital for speedy industrialization. When it became clear that anti-alcohol movements could threaten the consumption of state vodka as a source of state liquor revenues, he incapacitated anti-alcohol movement and at the same time declared that alcohol problems in Soviet Union had been resolved. This early experience in Soviet Union showed that drinking practices is rather determined and changed under the influence of many factors, such as power struggles, cultural conflicts between social elements and so on. It also showed how the utopian enthusiasm of Russian communists changed in harsh reality, and why many peoples began to develop conformist way of behaviour.

      • KCI등재

        용접부 피로강도를 고려한 굴삭기 붐 구조물 설계(II)

        박상철,Park, Sang-Chul 대한용접접합학회 2011 대한용접·접합학회지 Vol.29 No.4

        The purpose of this study is to develop improved boom structures with reliable fatigue strength of weldment and lower production cost. For that purpose, multi-body dynamic analysis was performed to evaluate forces acting on arm & boom cylinders and joints of boom structure during operation of an excavator for three working postures, then stress analysis was made to investigate stress distribution around diaphragms at the bottom plate of boom structures which was known to be susceptible to fatigue failures of welded joints, and finally boom structures with optimum arrangement of diaphragms was proposed. This work mainly consists of the following two parts: part 1 focuses on multi-body dynamic analysis of excavators during operation and part 2 includes evaluations of fatigue strength of welded joints for modified boom structures.

      • KCI등재

        용접부 피로강도를 고려한 굴삭기 붐 구조물 설계(I)

        박상철,Park, Sang-Chul 대한용접접합학회 2010 대한용접·접합학회지 Vol.28 No.5

        The purpose of this study is to develop improved boom structures with reliable fatigue strength of weldment and lower production cost. For that purpose, multibody dynamic analysis was performed to evaluate forces acting on arm & boom cylinders and joints of boom structure during operation of an excavator for three working postures, then stress analysis was made to investigate stress distribution around diaphragms at the bottom plate of boom structures which was known to be susceptible to fatigue failures of welded joints, and finally boom structure with optimum arrangement of diaphragms was proposed. This work basically consists of the following two parts: part 1 focuses on multibody dynamic analysis of excavators during operation and part 2 includes evaluations of fatigue strength of welded joints for modified boom structures.

      • KCI우수등재

        파벨 밀류코프의 1916년 11월 1일 국가두마 연설 -혁명의 돌격 신호?-

        박상철 ( Park Sang-chul ) 한국서양사학회 2018 西洋史論 Vol.0 No.137

        1916년 11월 1일에 밀류코프는 “우매함인가, 아니면 반역인가”라는 후렴구로 유명한 국가두마 연설에서 시튜르메르 정부를 ‘반역’ 혐의로 신랄하게 비판하였다. 그의 연설은 황후 알렉산드라 표도로브나를 직접 거론했다는 점에서, 당시 정부수반인 시튜르메르의 의도적인 ‘반역’ 가능성을 공개적으로 제기했다는 점에서 큰 파장을 불러일으켰다. 당시 밀류코프는 전제정 정부의 비타협적인 태도와 고양된 사회 분위기 때문에 정치적 난관에 직면해 있었다. 우선 밀류코프는 입헌민주당 내에서 자신의 정치적노선이 도전받고 있다고, 그리고 잘못하면 입헌민주당이 깨질 수도 있다고 느꼈다. 또한 그는 ‘정부와의 의회주의적 투쟁’을 성공적으로 수행하기 위해서, 1916년 10월에 다시 흔들리던 진보블록의 단합을 유지해야 하였다. 마지막으로 1916년 10월 여러 사회단체들이 다시 정치 활동을 적극적으로 전개하면서 국가두마가 반정부 진영에서 차지하는 지도적 위상이 크게 흔들리기 시작하였다. 따라서 밀류코프는 자신과 입헌민주당, 진보블록, 국가두마 등의 지도적 위상과 평판을 지키거나 강화하기 위해 시튜르메르 정부의 ‘반역’ 및 황후의 연루 가능성을 거론했던 것이다. 밀류코프의 이런 주장은 나중에 근거가 부족했음이 드러났지만 완전히 정치적 고려에서 나온 것만은 아니었다. 당시 러시아 정부가 독일과 단독강화를 맺으려 한다는 우려와, 정부 고위층과 궁정 내에 중요한 정보를 독일 측에 넘겨주는 세력이 있다는 소문은 러시아 사회에 널리 퍼져 있었다. 많은 자유주의자들은 이런 우려와 의심을 심각하게 받아들였다. 또한 밀류코프는 진보블록에 대한 연합국들의 지지 여론을 러시아 정부에 대한 새로운 압력 수단으로 이용하기를 원하였고, 외국여행에서의 개인적 경험과 자료들은 그런 의심과 우려를 거의 확실한 사실로 믿게 만들었을 것이다. 그러나 밀류코프의 연설이 대중들에게 미친 영향은 당대인들과 역사가들의 평가만큼 크지 않았다. 밀류코프는 결코 대중혁명을 원하지 않았을 뿐만 아니라, 대중혁명이 그렇게 가깝게 다가와 있을 것이라고는 예상하지도 못하였다. 사실 밀류코프는 전쟁이 끝난 후에 대중혁명이 발생할 것이라고 예상했을 뿐만 아니라, 그때에도 대중혁명을 지지하는 것이 아니라 대중혁명의 위협 아래 전제정 정부의 정치적 양보를 얻어 입헌주의 체제를 확립하려 하였다. 그리고 당시 파업운동의 확산을 정부 당국이 조장하고 있다는 밀류코프의 생각은 전쟁에 지친 노동자 대중들의 실제 분위기와 상당히 동떨어진 것이었다. 따라서 “승리할 때까지 전쟁을 계속하자”는 밀류코프의 연설은 대중들의 분위기에 결정적인 영향을 미치기 어려웠을 것이다. By his famous speech on November 1, 1916, “Stupidity or Treason,” P. N. Miliukov criticized Shturmer government for a treason. His speech became a great scandal in that he referred to Empress Alexandra Fedorovna and raised the possibility of the treason of the then head of government, B. V. Shturmer. At that time, Miliukov faced political difficulties. He felt that his political course was challenged within the Kadet Party; and that the Kadet Party, in the worst case, could be broken. Miliukov had to maintain the unity of Progressive Block to successfully carry out the ‘parliamentary struggle’ with the government. In October, 1916, with various social organizations actively engaging in political activities, the leadership of State Duma began to be challenged. To preserve his leadership and the reputation of the Kadet Party, Progressive Block, and State Duma, Miliukov addressed the possibility of the treason of Shturmer and the Empress. Miliukov’s such dissertation was later proven to be lacking grounds. However, rumors that the Russian government had talks for a separate peace with Germany was widespread in Russian society. Many liberals also shared such suspicions. In addition, because he wanted to use Entente’s supports for Russian liberals in their domestic political struggle, Miliukov needed to consider their main concerns. His personal experiences in oversea travels made him believe that his suspicions were certain. Miliukov never wanted any revolution in the war, nor anticipated that it was so close. He expected that a revolution would occur after the war, and that a constitutional system could be established by political concessions from the tsar government under the threat of the revolution, However, Miliukov’s opinion that the police provoked workers’ strike movement was far from the actual atmosphere of workers who wanted peace as soon as possible. Thus, Miliukov’s speech had limited influence on mass workers.

      • KCI등재

        일반논문 : 고등학교 『국어』 교과서와 시 수업의 교육 내용 -김소월의「진달래꽃」을 중심으로-

        박상철 ( Sang Chul Park ) 한국문학교육학회 2013 문학교육학 Vol.42 No.-

        The concerned study looked into educational contents of 「azaleas」in the <Korean>textbook in high school from the first educational curriculum to the revised educational curriculum in 2007 and based on what has been learned about the educational contents of 「azaleas」, the study summarized knowledge structures and changes of literature education as follows. While <Korean>was revised from the first curriculum revision work to the fourth curriculum revision work, "knowledge on authors" had been reduced and was, in the end, excluded from the educational contents. However, on the other hand, the extension of " knowledge on works" was given more value than before. When it comes to this sixth <Korean (Advanced)>, "knowledge that would design teaching·learning context" which was first mentioned by the fifth <Korean>got combined with "knowledge on works" which has been expanded since the first <Korean Ⅱ>and there, "knowledge of learners" was included. Even in the seventh <Korean (Advanced)>, this kind of knowledge structure of literature education continued. The ``2007 revised <Korean (Advanced)>focused on appreciation and understanding based on intertextuality and as a result, "knowledge on works" has been expanded. In addition, "knowledge of learners" and "knowledge that would design teaching·learning context" were given another weight when it comes to designing the educational contents. Next, the study analyzed classes on 「Azaleas」 which is another axis of the literature education phenomenon and discussed argumental characteristics of the poetry class focusing on those ideas of "realizing the educational contents by habitual repetition" and "re-constructing the educational contents through subjective poetry reading." "Realizing of the educational contents by habitual repetition" was determined to be a problematic situation in poetry education for it would develop only with absence of the subjective reading. Based on the critical recognition of the concerned problem, the study searched for possibilities of "re- constructing of the educational contents through independent poetry reading".

      • KCI등재

        유도전동기 회전자 제작시 압입작업 평가

        박상철(Sang-Chul Park) 한국산학기술학회 2016 한국산학기술학회논문지 Vol.17 No.10

        산업체에서 널리 사용되고 있는 유도전동기의 회전자를 제작하기 위하여 rotor core slot에 Cu bar를 열박음(shrinkage fit)작업으로 고정한 후 bar 표면을 punch로 원주방향으로 순차적으로 1.5~3mm 압입(swaging)작업시 rotor core slot과 bar 접촉면에 작용하는 contact tangential force의 크기와 분포를 단순화된 2차원 plane strain 해석모델을 사용하여 각각의 압입조건에 대하여 평가하였으며 또한 생산성 향상을 고려한 rotor core slot 설계시 slot 형상에 따른 접촉력 분포를 평가하여 rotor core slot 설계시 필요한 정보를 제공하고자 수치해석적인 방법을 사용하여 parametric study를 수행하였다. 이러한 탄소성 수치해석 결과 1) rotor core 압입작업시 bar 접촉면에 작용하는 contact force는 소성변형이 먼저 발생하는 bar 상부에 크게 작용하며 2) 순차적인 rotor core 압입작업시 bar 접촉면에 작용하는 total contact force는 바로 인접한 bar에 대한 압입작업에 의해서만 영향을 받으며 그 영향으로 약 55% 정도 total contact force가 증가하며 3) 생산성을 고려하여 rotor core를 설계하는 경우에 contact force를 증가시키기 위해서는 core slot의 폭보다 길이를 길게 하는 것이 바람직하다는 사실을 알 수 있었다. This study evaluates the magnitudes and distributions of contact tangential forces with the swaging depth of punch acting at the contact surfaces between a rotor core slot and a Cu bar during a sequential rotor core swaging process. The effects of the core slot shape on the magnitudes and distributions of the total contact forces were investigated to improve the productivity of the rotor core swaging process. Parametric elastic-plastic numerical analyses were performed using simplified two-dimensional cyclic symmetric plane strain models to evaluate the contact force distributions at the contact surfaces. The numerical analysis results show that the total contact tangential forces increased by about 55% with the adjacent Cu bar swaging process. The length of the core slot is a dominant factor in the core slot design as result of the increased total contact tangential forces during the swaging process of the rotor core.

      • KCI등재

        러시아 포스터 속의 제1차 세계대전

        박상철 ( Sang Chul Park ) 한국서양사연구회(구 서울대학교 서양사연구회) 2016 서양사연구 Vol.0 No.55

        During the First World War, the publication of Russian propaganda posters was significantly increased and its outstanding artists participated in its making. Russian War Posters can be divided two categories: Russian traditional Lubok-style posters and European-style posters. At early times of First World War, Lubok-style posters, with impressive images and a few sentences, delivered the news of Russian military victories to the Russian peoples, in particular, to peasants. By describing the German Emperor as a devil, emphasizing his ambitions of being a European Emperor, and/or accentuating the cruelty of the German army, they insisted the legitimacy of the `defense war` of Russia, while highlighting the bravery and combat capability of the Russian soldiers and expressing the expectation of easy victory. But since the war was prolonged and the Russian army experienced continuous military defeats, lubok-style posters were unable to present a logical or moral explanation and the way how to overcome the difficult situation. It just disappeared from the market. European-style poster is classified as `charity` posters and war-bonds posters. Charity posters, usually advertising a charity event to the wealthier, were published not by the Russian government but by various charities and social organizations. These posters largely appealed to the patriotism, civic duty, and humanitarian feelings of the wealthier and, taking into account their tastes, showed bright and optimistic mood. However, some charity posters which overly stressed the sufferings of war victims had possibilities of imparting anti-war messages. Warbonds posters which emerged from 1916 described the real situation of the front and more actively reflected the stance of the government. But the purpose of some war-bonds posters was vague and unarticulated as compared to the other belligerent posters. (Chonnam National University/sachpak@chonnam.ac.kr)

      • KCI등재

        유도전동기 회전자 제작시 압입작업 평가 Ⅱ

        박상철(Sang-Chul Park) 한국산학기술학회 2017 한국산학기술학회논문지 Vol.18 No.6

        유도전동기 회전자는 rotor core를 일정한 높이로 쌓은 후 rotor core slot에 Cu bar를 열박음(shrinkage fit)작업으로 고정한 후 Cu bar 표면을 punch로 길이방향, 원주방향으로 순차적으로 압입(swaging)하여 제작된다. 본 연구에서는 Cu bar 표면을 압입할 때 Cu bar 표면에 발생하는 압입깊이, 잔류응력 분포 그리고 rotor core slot과 Cu bar 접촉면에 작용하는 접촉력(contact force)을 평가하고자 하였다. 한편 실제의 압입작업은 복잡한 3차원 문제이나 수치해석적인 접근을 위하여 단순화된 2차원 cyclic symmetry 해석모델을 개발하였으며 이러한 해석모델을 사용하여 일정한 압입압력에서 4가지 종류의 Cu bar 형상에 대하여 압입량과 접촉력을 평가하였다. 탄소성 수치해석 결과 1) sample Cu bar block model을 사용하여 단순화된 2차원 수치해석 모델을 개발하였고 2) rotor core 압입작업시 일정한 압입압력에서 Cu bar 표면의 압입량은 Cu bar 형상에 크게 관계없이 거의 일정하며 3) 압입작업시 punch에 가해지는 압입압력으로부터 rotor core slot과 Cu bar 접촉면에 작용하는 총 접촉력을 추정할 수 있는 근사식을 제안하였다. This study evaluated the displacements of a Cu bar in the Y-direction and the relationship between swaging pressures and total contact forces to increase the productivity of the rotor core swaging process. Elastic-plastic numerical analyses of four different Cu bar shapes were performed with a constant swaging pressure to evaluate the displacements of the Cu bar in the Y-direction and the contact force distributions at the contact surfaces during the swaging process. Based on the numerical analysis results, the following conclusions were obtained. First, a simplified 2-dimensional cyclic symmetric analysis model was developed for the numerical analysis of the rotor core swaging process. Second, the final displacements of the Cu bar in the Y-direction were nearly the same as the change of the Cu bar size at a constant swaging pressure. Third, a linear relationship between the swaging pressures and the total contact forces, the so called resistance forces, was suggested.

      • KCI우수등재

        제1차 세계대전기 러시아 우익의 분열과 전제정 옹호 논거의 약화

        박상철 ( Park Sang-chul ) 한국서양사학회 2017 西洋史論 Vol.0 No.134

        많은 역사가들은 1차 세계대전 중에 러시아제국이 붕괴된 원인으로 흔히 전제정의 비타협적인 완고성 또는 자유주의자들의 급진성을 거론한다. 하지만 거기에는 러시아 우익세력들의 분열과 전제정 옹호 논거의 약화도 또 다른 중요한 요인으로 작용했을 것이다. 러시아 우익은 전쟁 전에 친독일적인 입장을 공공연하게 피력하였지만, 전쟁이 발발하자 독일의 군국주의와 야욕을 비난하였다. 하지만 전쟁이 장기화되자, 그들은 전쟁의 지속 여부를 둘러싸고 입장이 분열되었다. 게다가 러시아 자유주의자들은 러시아 우익을 “친독일적”이라고 공격함으로써 그들의 영향력을 약화시키려 했다. 이런 비난은 전쟁 전의 친독일적인 입장 때문에, 그리고 전쟁 기간에 일부 우익이 독일과의 단독강화를 주장했거나 그런 오해를 살 만한 발언을 했기 때문에 큰 설득력을 갖게 되었다. 러시아 우익은 전쟁이 애국적 열정을 고양시키고 모든 국민을 군주 주변으로 단합시킬 것이라고, 따라서 전쟁기간에 보수적 원칙에 입각하여 러시아가 다시 태어나게 될 것이라고 믿었다. 하지만 우익 세력들은 국내정책에서도 입장이 갈렸다. 한편에서는 자유주의자들의 권력욕을 비난하면서 국가두마의 해산 또는 무력화, 사회단체들의 역할 축소, 강력한 정부권력의 확립, 계엄령 선포 등을 황제에게 간청했다. 다른 한편에서는 전쟁 승리를 위해 정부가 국가두마 및 사회단체들과 더 적극적으로 대화하고 협력할 것을 촉구하였고, 특히 “어둠의 세력들”을 제거할 필요성을 강조하였다. 또한 ‘애국심’과 ‘강력한 정부’처럼 우익이 오랫동안 주장했던 논거들은 전쟁 상황에서 설득력을 상실하게 되었다. 자유주의 세력들은 전쟁 승리를 위한 단결이라는 명분으로 자신들의 애국심을 부각시키면서 우익의 친독일적인 성향을 매국 행위로 비난하였다. 그리고 강력한 정부란 사회의 진정한 신뢰를 받을 때에만 실현가능하며, 이를 위해 다양한 사회집단 및 소수민족들과 대화와 타협을 해야 한다고 주장하였다. 반면에 우익세력들이 주장하는, 황제에게만 충성스러운 강력한 정부란, 많은 사람들의 눈에는, 전세를 뒤집지 못한 채 사회경제적 위기를 심화시키는 기존 정부와 크게 다르지 않은 것으로 보였다. 따라서 많은 우익 인사들은 자유주의자들의 신랄한 공격에 맞서 점차 러시아 정부와 기존 체제를 옹호할 의지를 상실하게 되었다. Many historians often refer to the intransigence of autocracy and the radicalism of liberals as being the main causes of the collapse of the Russian empire. However, the fact that Russian rightists were largely divided and discredited while advocating autocracy could be counted as another important cause. Although they publicly expressed their pro-German stance before the war, when the war broke out, the Russian rightists blamed the war on German militarism. However, as the war became increasingly prolonged, they were divided because of their viewpoints, especially about the continuation of the war. In addition, Russian liberals attempted to weaken the influence of the Russian rightists by condemning them as being “pro-German.” This condemnation became quite convincing, considering the insistence of a separate peace with Germany by some Russian rightists and their remarks open to misunderstanding as was their pro-German stance before the war. Russian rightists believed that the war would create enthusiastic patriotism and unite all the peoples around the emperor. However, they were divided in terms of their stance on domestic policy. Most rightists, criticizing the liberals’ greed for power, supplicated the emperor to paralyze and even dissolve State Duma, to establish a strong government, and to declare martial law. But several rightists urged the government to actively cooperate with State Duma in order to win the war, and in particular emphasized the need to eliminate the “forces of darkness”. The long-standing arguments of rightists, such as ‘patriotism’ and ‘strong government’, eventually became less persuasive. Liberals, by insisting on unity for victory, highlighted their patriotism and denounced the rightists as being pro-German and treasonous. They argued that a strong government could be accomplished only when enjoying the trust of the society, as it were, by way of communication and compromise with various social groups and ethnic minorities. A strong government only loyal to the emperor, such as that which rightists wished to establish, did not seem to be much different from the existing government which had caused the socio-economic crisis. Thus, many rightists gradually lost their will to defend the Russian government and the established order against bitter attacks by liberals.

      • KCI등재

        유도전동기 회전자 금형주조 시 품질평가 Ⅱ

        박상철(Sang-Chul Park) 한국산학기술학회 2019 한국산학기술학회논문지 Vol.20 No.7

        본 연구는 소형 유도전동기 회전자를 생산공장에서 금형주조(die casting)로 제작 시 발생하는 cast 부 품질문제를 개선하기 위하여 수행되었다. 1차 연구결과와 현장 적용성을 고려한 수많은 parametric study를 통하여 새로운 rotor core cast model을 제안하였으며, 그 제안된 model에 대한 유효성을 평가, 검증하기 위하여 주조해석 전용프로그램을 사용한 수치해석과 실제품에 대한 현장실험을 통하여 다음과 같은 결론을 얻었다. 첫째, 유도전동기 회전자의 새로운 cast model에 대한 충진해석을 수행한 결과 용탕은 하부 end ring 부를 먼저 충진하고 이동하여 상부 end ring, core slot 부분을 충진하고 최종적으로 core slot 부분에서 충진이 완료된다. 둘째, 새롭게 제안된 rotor core cast model에 대한 용탕의 유동 양상을 보면 하부 end ring 부에 용탕의 유동에 의한 와류가 적게 발생하였으며, 현장실험 결과 하부 end ring 부 단면에서 소량의 작은 결함만이 발견되었다. 셋째, 유도전동기 회전자 제작 시 rotor core cast 형상 변경을 통하여 end ring 부 결함 발생 면적이 약 70 % 감소한 양호한 품질의 회전자를 생산할 수 있다. This study focused on improving the cast quality of small-sized induction motor rotors during the die casting process. A new rotor core cast model was proposed based on previous research results and parametric studies. Numerical analyses using 3-dimensional half models were performed to evaluate the filling patterns of aluminum molten metals into a mold and on-site experiment performed to verify the newly proposed cast model. The following were obtained from numerical filling analyses and experimental results. First, molten metals started to fill the lower end ring, then moved on to fill the core slot and upper end ring and finally stopped to fill at the rotor core slot. Second, significant circulation of molten metals was not observed on the lower end ring, resulting in fewer defects at the section of the lower end ring from the experimental results. Third, the new shape of a rotor core cast was effective in producing rotors with sound cast quality, and reducing the end ring cast defect area by approximately 70 %.

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