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Discipline problems have long been the pressing problems facing school. For effective discipline, it is prerequisite to understand the nature and reasons of discipline problem behavior - misbehavior. This paper discusses what behavior constitute discipline problem how it can be defined and perceived. The paper also discusses why students misbehavior how it can be explain and understood by examining theoretical models for behavior problems and their use. There are diverse definitions of discipline problem. Early definition focuses on student behavior that interferes with teaching. This definition is simple and narrow. More comprehensive definition that detracts from the order and safety - physical and psychological - of learning environment. The most comprehensive definition embraces student behaviors that violate rules of conducts congruent with the norms in social and work setting. Developmental trends of definitions focus on instructional, learning environment, social and situational. Concern is gradually being shown today to the more comprehensive definition - more social and situational in that a more set of discipline problems in actual fact is embraced. Our perceptions of discipline problem differ from the definitional one. In practice, how teacher perceives and interprets problem behavior are more important than what it is defined, since teacher's perception of student's behavior affects how teacher responds to it. Clearly a need exists for more research to be taken in order to clarify what teachers/students construe as discipline problems and to ascertain the factors which influence their perceptions. The paper examined five major theoretical models which are used to understand or explain problem behavior. The five models are the psychodynamic approach, behavioral modification, humanistic psychology, a system approach, and labelling theory. Each model takes a different standpoints. However, directional trends of the models have shown a movement from a narrow psychological perspective to a broader, contextual, sociological approach. The trends from an individua/psychological perspective to a social/sociological one emphasize institutional influences upon pupils' behavior. This implies that school and teacher can do much to reduce discipline problems. Teachers as practitioners face the choice problem among the theoretical models, each of which takes a different perspectives. However, it might be said that all of the theories may be right in their own right. Therefore, the choice problem can be resolved by practicing a eclectic approach rather than on a single theory. The eclectic approach includes : the use of some formulation which incorporate two or more of the models together within a overarching framework and the use of different members of the team electing to familiarize themselves with particular models.
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오늘날 교육의 질적 향상과 관련된 대부분의 학교교육 문제는 교수-학습체제와 관련된 것이다. 교수-학습조직은 교육을 직접적으로 수행하기 위해서 교육과정을 기반으로 하여 교사와 학생으로 구성된 조직으로서, 학교교육의 본질적 기능을 수행하는 조직이다. 그래서 교수-학습조직의 구성과 운영방식은 학교교육의 형태를 결정하고, 그 형태는 다시 교육의 질을 결정하는 요소가 된다. 따라서 교수-학습조직의 변화없이는 진정한 의미에서 학교교육의 변화를 기대할 수 없는 것이다. 우리 나라의 초․중등 학교조직은 교수-학습활동 중심으로 발달하지 못하고 관리행정 중심으로 구조화되어 있어 학교교육을 효과적으로 수행하지 못하고 있다. 학교운영은 학교장을 정점으로 하여 교사의 교무분장조직을 중심으로 계선조직으로 운영되고 있으며, 그 기능 또한 교수-학습활동의 지원보다는 학교 및 교사관리에 중점이 두어져 있다. 교수-학습활동 운영에 있어서도 획일적이고 경직된 학년제․학급체제에서 탈피하지 못하고 있어 학생들의 다양한 적성과 능력 및 학습욕구를 충족시켜 주지 못하고 있다. 이러한 교육조직의 문제점들은 창의적이고 효과적인 교육수행의 장애가 되고 있는바, 학생교육을 보다 효율적으로 수행하기 위해서 학교조직은 관리위주의 경영체제에서 벗어나서 교수와 학습활동을 촉진하고 지원하는 체제로 전환되어야 한다.
This study reviewed the principles of educational autonomy system and presented the recommendations for the improvement of the Educational Autonomy System in Korea. The principles examined in this study includes the principle of decentralization, the principle of local participation and control, the principle of educational autonomy, and the principle of professional management. Viewed from these principles, the Educational Autonomy System in Korea is continually confronted with organizational problems, that is, the system has not been a well-defined organization in respect to the principles. In order to realize the principles of educational autonomy system, the following recommendations were suggested for reorganizing the Educational Autonomy System in Korea: 1. As to the size of an educational autonomy unit, it is desirable that the Educational Autonomy System in Korea takes the Two-tier system which consists of Special City and Province as an intermediary unit and city and county as a basic unit. 2. As to the Organization of the Educational Autonomy System, it is desirable to take the seperate organization pattern which consists of Board of Education as a legislative organ and Superintendent of Education as an excutive organ. 3. For choosing members of the Board of Education, the board member should be composed by a proper election system. It is recommended that, at the intermediary unit (Special City and Province), the board members consist of members elected by local assembly, representative members appointed by basic unit's Board of Education, and the chief of local government. At basic unit (City and County), the board members consist of members elected by local assembly and the chief of local governmment. 4. Superintendent of education should be appointed by Board of Education at each local level. And the qualification of Superintendent should be strengthened.
The purpose of this study is to develop the restructuring options for the schools in Korea. The study draws basic directions for the school restructuring by reviewing the literature which cover school restructuring works. It also analyzes structural and managerial problems of Korean primary and secondary schools. Finally, it suggests restrcturing options for the improvement of the schools. The major findings from the study are as follows. 1) The educational reforms from the middle of the 1980s focus on the change of school organization. The main approaches of the reforms have been strengthening of central bureaucratic control, strengthening of community participation, school-site management, teacher empowerment, and restructuring centered on teaching-learning. Recent reform literature tend to emphasize the four approaches except strengthening of central bureaucatic control. 2) In general the recent literature on school restructuring, on school organization, and on educational reform policy of the central government seemed to recommend the following: the basic directions of school restructuring should be toward client-centered education, self-managing school management, democratic school management, professional school management, teaching & learning centered school management, school management relevant for the future in which information technology is important. 3) Schools in general consist of three structural parts: a teaching & learning organization, academic affairs management, and student management organization. The analysis of our primary and secondary school organization shows that schools are management affairs oriented rather than teaching & learning oriented. Therefore, the organizations should be restructured to have more flexible and organic teaching-learning organization. Academic affairs organization and management organization should be restructured to support teaching and learning more effectively. In conclusion, we recommend that our shcool organization be restructured to upgrade the effectiveness of teaching & learning, to raise the autonomy & professionalism of school management, and to respond to the educational needs of clients.